GROUP: 4 Presented by: Mohd Amsyar Bin Abdullah Supervised By: Dr. Abdullah Hisham Omar

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Problem Statement Objectives Of Study Scope Of Study Significance Of Study

2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0



engineering design and construction project plans. Y and Z or geodetic latitude (lat). 1995). Traditionally. 3 . This technique has been done in surveying works inland that need the accuracy of centimeter level such as topographic maps. (Khairul. longitude (long) and ellipsoidal height (h) offers an alternative to conventional leveling technique in height determination.1. Malaysia has been implemented this GPS leveling techniques by established our own geoid model which known as myGEOID to convert the GPS ellipsoidal height into orthometric height.0 INTRODUCTION The GPS technique provide position in three dimensional coordinates in terms of Cartesian coordinates X. Nowadays. orthometric height which refers to the geoid are normally used in everyday application rather then the GPS derived ellipsoidal height.

especially oil or gas.1. or marine exploration. planning navigational routes. So. As aforementioned in the introduction part. we can use the advantages of high-accuracy GPS positioning to determine the height of terrain (seabed topography) relative to geoid (msl). The advance of GPS positioning nowadays have provide us to do the GPS heighting which only used the geoid as its vertical height datum.0 INTRODUCTION Bathymetry surveys may be conducted for many different reasons. Furthermore. the bathymetry is determined by depth which based on Chart Datum as its vertical datum and to determine the chart datum. including the planning of hydropower plants. we have to do the tide gauge observations. This study will take advantage of this myGEOID to develop a seamless vertical height datum for marine areas as well as for inland. by using this geoid model. 4 . MyGeoid has been established in peninsular Malaysia and also in Sabah and Sarawak. the locating of mineral resources.

1 Problem Statement Traditionally.Mean Low Water MLLWLT . The following is a listing of some chart datum definitions: • • • • • • MLW .Lowest Astronomic Tide (atmospheric and oceanographic effects removed) In offshore works. bathymetric data has been collected relative to a sounding datum. then translated to chart datum for storage and chart production.Mean Lower Low Water LNT .Lower Low Water Large Tide LAT . the most significant challenges in traditional hydrography is establishing the relationship between the instantaneous water surface and chart datum. As a result.Lowest Normal Tide LLWLT . most legacy bathymetric data contains depths relative to some local chart datum.1.Mean Lower Low Water Large Tide MLLW . away from tide gauge locations as the chart datums are only fully valid at the location of the tidal station (where the tides are observed). 5 .

6 .1 Problem Statement Even if MSL is the same at two locations (relative to the geoid). in the future there will be only a vertical height datum that is used in topography (land) and bathymetry (ocean) which is the geoid. vertical land (topography) and ocean (bathymetry) data were collected for different purposes. using different methods and related to different vertical reference surfaces. the low water datum will likely be different.1. In the past. So. The need to merge the two data types has driven the need to resolve these differences.

3) To analyse the suitability of geoid based seamless vertical height datum.2 Objectives Of Study 1) To study Land Survey Datum (LSD) and Chart Datum.1. 7 . 2) To generate seabed topography based on seamless vertical height datum using geoid model (myGEOID).

Johor. Using ArcGIS software to generate the seamless land based vertical height datum to marine based vertical height datum.3 Scope Of Study  The study area chosen is the coastal area which is at Nusajaya. 8     . Compare the results of generated seabed topography. (based on MSL and CD as the vertical datum) Develop a seabed topography database that is based on the geoid vertical height datum.1. To understand the GPS derived heights that must be transformed from the ellipsoid to the geoid (msl).

1. 9 . and properly merging information from the two is essential for the analysis of coastal processes and land use of land topography. for example. the depth of the near-shore bathymetry relative to a beach profile for erosion monitoring or for sand renourishment. Other coastal zone management issues that need of the seamless vertical height datum is as following: • • • • • floodplain mapping storm surge and tsunami modeling sea level rise scenarios shoreline mapping and change analysis planning and development of coastal zone The coastal zone encompasses a wide swath along the shoreline that includes both the land and sea. it is important to define bathymetry relative to existing land mapping data.4 Significance Of Study For coastal zone management surveys.

Z). longitude and height) or Geocentric Cartesian Coordinate Systems (X .0 LITERATURE REVIEW GPS Positioning According to Seker.ellipsoid Tidal surface – msl .chart datum 10 . point positioning on the earth means that determining the three dimensional coordinates of the so-called point with respect to a reference system.. λ . Z. Point coordinates given by GPS is in Ellipsoidal Geodetic (ϕ .2. Vertical Height Datum zero surfaces to which elevations or heights are referred. 1. Geodetic surface . h . 3.latitude. (2002). 2.geoid Mathematical surface . Y .

S.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Ellipsoid Surface mathematical model of the Earth which includes a set of numbers for the size and shape of the Earth because the Earth is slightly flattened at the poles. A...(Shahrum. 1994) A flattened sphere. 2010) Geoid Surface zero surfaces as defined by the Earth's gravity which is approximated by MSL. 11 . (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2010). which is known as an ellipsoid is used to represent the geometric model of the Earth (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. According to Fotopoulos (2003).2. Majid. the classical Gauss-Listing definition of the geoid is given as an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field that coincides with the mean sea level.

6 years which is a cycle of moon node. al. variation in winds.2. (Azhari. salinity. 12 . MSL is the average level reached by the sea water for a period of time and this level nearly overlap with geoid and the best period of the tidal observations made is 18. water. 2001).0 LITERATURE REVIEW Mean Sea Level (MSL) According to M. river runoff. oil and gas. M. et... water density and fluid withdrawal such as ocean loading. ocean currents. Razali (2008). MSL is not coincide with geoid because the sea level measurements from tide gauge are ambiguous which means the records do not only reflect sea level change but are also contaminated by vertical land movements.

2008).2.6 years.al.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Chart Datum (CD) Used as zero surface in the determination of water depths and tides and it is used on nautical charts to reference water depths and for navigational use. (Mohd Razali et. 13 . Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) is chose as the CD as it is the lowest level of sea water which is the sea water will never lower than this LAT value. LAT is determined by predicted the tide for a period of 18.

(Pekeliling KPUP Bil.0 LITERATURE REVIEW myGEOID According to Seker.. Z. (2002). et.2. modeling the difference between gravimetric and GPS/levelling geoids will improve the geoid height determination accuracy at a point observed and. al. help determination of orthometric heights from GPS observations. 14 . thus. 10.. 2005). contains the height of the geoid (or the value of N) relative to the GRS80 reference ellipsoid surface GPS users in Malaysia can obtain their values of the orthometric height on the accuracy of 5 centimeters across the country.

15 .2. or datum ambiguity.0 LITERATURE REVIEW final gravimetric geoid for Peninsular Malaysia (WMGEOID04) final gravimetric geoid for East Malaysia (EMGEOID05) The final geoid model was computed by fitting the GPS-levelling and the gravimetric geoid to produce Malaysia’s first ever geoid model – MyGEOID as the absolute comparison of gravimetric geoid-ellipsoid separation with the geometric (GPS minus benchmark heights) equivalent revealed existence of datum bias.

0 LITERATURE REVIEW GPS Heighting .GPS measures heights related to the ellipsoid (h) myGEOID provides geoid height value (N) (1) GPS Levelling Over Land •P H orthometric = h GPS – N geoid heigt 16 .2.

0 LITERATURE REVIEW (2) GPS Levelling Over Water Body Description of symbols used in Figures are as follows: H = orthometric height (height from geoid to terrain) h = ellipsoid height (determined from coordinates of receiver) N = geoid height (determined from geoid model) D = depth measured by echo sounder from transducer to terrain K = offset from antenna of receiver to transducer GPS Heighting at Lake/River H = h – N – (K+D) positive H indicates height of terrain above sea level 17 .2.

0 LITERATURE REVIEW GPS Heighting at Marine Areas H = (K+D) – h + N • negative H indicates height of terrain above sea level • positive N indicates geoid above ellipsoid H = (K+D) – (h + N) •negative H indicates height of terrain above sea level •negative N indicates geoid above ellipsoid 18 .2.

0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PRELIMINARY STUDY LITERATURE STUDY STUDY AREA • Research title • Introduction • Study on previous research • Coastal area at Nusajaya.3. Johor • GPS (inland and sounding fix) • Depth • Tide gauge • Geoid DATA PREPARATION DATA PROCESSING ANALYSIS of RESULTS DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION • Generate seabed topography using ArcGIS • Develop database • Comparison of bathymetry • Conclusions • Recommendation for future research 19 .

4.0 PRELIMINARY RESULTS The expected results are: – Map of 3D seabed topography using geoid as vertical datum – Contour map and DEM of seabed topography – Analysis and comparison of generated seabed topography using geoid based and chart datum as the vertical datum – A database system for geoid based vertical height datum 20 .

0 CONCLUSIONS • The geoid can be used also in marine areas to be the vertical datum as well as inland.5. 21 . • Land and marine has the same vertical datum which is geoid.

194.. Razali. A. Fakulti Ukur. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia National-Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Ses. Kuala Lumpur – 12 May 2005.6. Seksyen Geodesi.76. http://EarthInfo. Rusli.Mil/Gandg/Coordsys/Definitions. Engineering And Design . Michael Gourley. Mardi. Din.. Coordinate Sysytems Analysis: Definition. Sydney. Monograf Hidrografi Asas. Jerry Mills.0 REFERENCES Mohd Syahrul Syahrin Bin Hamdan (2006): Analisis Kaedah Penentuan Ketinggian Ortometrik GPS Menggunakan Model Geoid. (1993). (2010).. Mahmud. (2003). Seminar Rtknet Dan Peta Geoid.Html M. FIG Congress 2010 Facing The Challenges – Building The Capacity. Tesis PSM. Abdul.. A. Hydrographic Surveying Using The Ellipsoid As The Vertical Reference Surface.Pdf Shahrum. Bahagian Pemetaan JUPEM. (2010). Majid.. Usmuni. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Dan Sains Geoinformasi. http://140. (2005). (2008). Dean Battilana. Nota Kursus Geodesi Asas. Shahlan. David Dodd..129/Publications/Eng-Manuals/Em1110-1-1003/C-5. 11-16 April 2010 22 .. Kadir.. Othman.NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying.Nga. JUPEM. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. EM 1110-1-1003. Australia.

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1 Finding a topic 2 3 4 5 Synopsis for submission Approval of Title Literature study & discussion Find out software and research area Find out data format Method of data collection Prepare proposal Submit proposal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weeks 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 15 16 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 6 7 8 9 10 Presentation / 25 .0 GANTT CHART (sem. 1) No Activities .7.

7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Activities Preparation fieldwork Data observation Data processing Data management Result and analysis of data Report writing Submit final draft Presentation in seminar (viva) Submit final thesis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weeks 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 26 . 2) No.0 GANTT CHART (sem.

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