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Plant Physiology (101)

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Lecture 11 Contents

1- Plant Metabolism
Anabolism (Plant Photosynthesis) Catabolism (Plant respiration) 2- Plant Hormone Classification

Plant movement
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Plant Photosynthesis
Photo means light and synthesis means to make Process in which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars using solar energy Occurs in chloroplast

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Plant Photosynthesis

The photosynthesis can be divided into two reaction

1- Photo reaction Needs sunlight -Break down the H2O to release energy

2- Dark reaction (Calvin cycle)

-convert CO2 into organic material

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Plant Photosynthesis
1- Light reactions occur mostly in the thylakoid stacks of the grana. Here, sunlight is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.

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Plant Photosynthesis
2- Dark reactions (Calvin cycle) occur in the stroma. Carbon dioxide is converted to sugar using ATP and NADPH.

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Plant Respiration
Respiration is in fact oxidation of organic foods like carbohydrates to release energy (ATP).
Respiration is basically of two types. Aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration

How Do plant Get Energy From ATP?


high- energy bonds By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP
1 ATP ADP + Pi + 30.6 kJ

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Aerobic Respiration in Plants


The complete oxidation of sugar occurs in a series of step by step reactions.

A) Cytosol reaction Glycolysis


B) Mitochondria reaction

The Krebs Cycle (TCA) happened in mitochondria's matrix

The Electron Transport Chain happened in mitochondria's Cristae

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(A) Cytosol reaction (Glycolysis)


Glucose + 4ADP + 4Pi + 2NAD
2ATP 2ADP

2Pyruvic acid + 4ATP + 2NADH.H+

Thus, the net gain during glycolysis is


2 ATP Plus 2NADH.H+
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(B) Mitochondria reaction


1- Kreps cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle TCA) Thus by the end of the TCA, the cell gained :2ATP, 8NADH.H+ and 2FADH2 Pluse (2NADH.H+ and 2ATP from glycolysis).

X2

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(B) Mitochondria reaction


2- Respiratory Chain or Electron Transport Chain (E.T.C.) - The hydrogen carriers (10 NADH.H+ and 2 FADH2) now move to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion for E.T.C. 1 NADH.H+ = 3 ATP 1 FADH2 = 2 ATP

Overall budget for aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule

Total No. of ATP mols = 38

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General Plant Metabolism

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Anaerobic Respiration (Alcoholic Fermentation)


Anaerobic respiration is an intracellular process which occurs in absence of Oxygen in completed of three steps. All steps take place in cytoplasm of cell. Glycolysis: C6H12O6 ------------------->2Pyruvic acid (3C) + 2NADH2 + 2ATP. Decarboxylation: Pyruvic acid (3C)-------------------->2Acetaldehyde + 2CO2. Reduction: 2Acetaldehyde + 2NADH2 --------->2Ethyl Alcohol.

Adding all these three steps we get:C6H12O6---------->2Ethyl Alcohol + 2CO2 +2ATP


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Plant Hormone
Plant hormones
are naturally occurring organic substance that can be transported from the synthetic tissue to a specific target tissue where, at low concentration, exert a profound influence on physiological process.

Hormone action
At the cell level hormones attach to a protein receptor which sends a signal down a transduction pathway to switch on particular genes. Through transcription and translation this leads to production of an enzyme protein which actually causes the change in plant germination, growth and differentiation.
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General recognized classes of plant hormones


(1) Auxins (3) Cytokinins (2) Gibberellins (4) Abscisic acid (5) Ethylene Signal-transduction pathways in plants (Hormone Action)

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Auxin
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the natural form of Auxin. Synthesized from tryptophan or indole in leaf primodia, young leaves and developing seed.

First discovered as substance associated with phototropic response

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Auxin and cell elongation

IAA triggers an increase in the plasticity, or stretchability, of cell walls, allowing elongation to occur Loosening of cell wall

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Auxin Stimulates
Cell enlargement Cell division in cambium Phloem and xylem differentiation Delay leaf senescence
IAA Promote apical dominance
Lateral bud grown

Promote apical dominance Delay fruit ripening Root initiation Root branching Floral organ growth

Apical bud
removed

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Cytokinins
Function of cytokinins Promotes cell division. Morphogenesis. Lateral bud development. Delay of senescence. Stomatal opening. Rapid transport in xylem stream.
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Adenine basic

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Effects of Gibberellins
Discovered in association with Foolish disease of rice by fungus called (Gibberella fujikuroi)

Effects of Gibberellins General cell elongation. Breaking of dormancy. Promotion of flowering. commercially use for increase seedless fruit size

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Abscisic acid
Functions of abscisic acid

General growth inhibitor. Causes stomatal closure. Readily translocated. Produced in response to stress.

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Gaseous in form
Rapid diffusion.

. Functions of ethylene Fruit ripening. Senescence and abscission. Interference with auxin transport. Initiation of stem elongation and bud development.
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Plant movement
Directional movements in response to a directional stimulus (I) Tropic responses
1- Phototropism 2- Thigmotropism 3- Gravitropism 4- Chemotropism Chemotropism is a plant growth response to a chemical

(II) Nastic Movements


1- Turgor movement Mimosa pudica L. (sensitive plant) 2- Nyctinastic Movements
plant movements in response to the daily cycle of light and dark, e.g. Sunflower and been plants

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