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By SATYA PRAKASH PRASAD 11CE64R16 GEOTECHNICALENGINEERING

OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ARCHING?? CURRENT STATE OF ART DEBATE ON

VALUE OF K

SENSITIVITY OF SOIL ARCHING TO Φ CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION Arching is a phenomenon that is seen in many geotechnical and mining engineering applications. Terzaghi described arching action in soils as "one of the most universal phenomena encountered in soils both in the field and in the laboratory. . In 1943.

and the rest is transferred to the walls in the form of shear stresses. Due to the frictional resistance provided by the vertical or inclined walls. for flight of an arrow. only a fraction of the self-weight of the backﬁll material is transferred to the bottom. . It is describe as a transfer of forces b/w a yielding mass of a geomaterial and adjoining stationary material.as in archery.WHAT IS ARCHING???? "Arching" derives from the Latin word “archus” .

CURRENT STATE OF ART Marston (1930) proposed the ﬁrst analytical expression to compute the average vertical normal stress within a granular backﬁll in a long and narrow trench at depth z as Where μ=tan(δ)=friction co-eff. At wall-backfill interface δ= friction angle at wall-backfill interface .

by considering the equilibrium of a inﬁnitesimal element of backﬁll layer cut horizontally. and integrating over the height of the stope.Terzaghi(1943) included cohesion into the Marston’s equation and proposed that Marston’s and Terzaghi’s expressions were developed for plane strain situation. .

Pirapakaran and Sivakugan(2007)extended it to more general- ized nonplane strain situations The backﬁll is placed within a right rectangular void of width B and length L If the void is square or circular in plan .

Handy(1985)used catenary arch of principle stresses to estimate the vertical and horizontal stresses in a vertical walled trench .

and he reported that K can be up to 1. By Aubertin et.Debate On Value of K Marston’s work suggests K can be taken as the Rankine’s active earth pressure coefficient Ka Terzaghi proposed that K can be assumed to be equal to an empirical constant at every point of the ﬁll.5. Most of the graphical results for explaining the arching effect was explained by Terzaghi considering K=1. It was observed K=K0 is more appropriate than other earth pressure coefficients .

.Continue… Handy and Spangler (2007) reported that rotation of the principal stress directions near the wall increases K and will have the effect of increasing supporting friction.e δ=ф) then K=Kkrynine Mobilization of wall friction causes an increase in horizontal stress and a decrease in vertical stress close to the wall due to rotation of principal stress directions. thus resulting in increase in K. so the actual value is approximated by the earth pressure coefficient For loose granular soil K0 = 1-sinф For rough vertical wall(i.

δ and φ are K and μ=tanδ to find σv at any depth.Sensitivity Of Soil Arching To Φ It is seen from the above developments: The he fraction of the self-weight of the backﬁll that is transferred to the bottom(arching) is a function of the geometry . Two main parameter appear in all expression above .

Field conditions controlling the value of wall-backﬁll interface friction angle .

g: Mineﬁelds surrounded by rock walls. . and K can be taken as Ka. the fragmented rock wall is similar to what is shown in Fig. By the above fig range of δ is 0 to φ Depending on the ﬁeld application. 1(c). or Kkrynine For e. δ can be taken as a fraction of φ. K0.

2. Variation of μK against φ for K=Ka (active earth pressure coefficient) .Fig.

3. Fig. Variation of μK against φ for K=K0 (earth pressure coefficient at rest) .

Variation of μK against φ for K=Kkrynine .4. Fig.

Table 1. Average Values of μK .

reveals that all these equations are insensitive to “φ”. And hence it is not necessary to precisely know the value of φ. irrespective of the assumption with regard to K and δ .A closer look at the Marston’s equation and its other improved forms Eqs.especially for routine design applications .

mining stopes . therefore. The product μK does not vary signiﬁcantly with variation in φ of the backﬁll.CONCLUSIONS :. involve the product of K and tanδ i.The general conclusions of the present study are summarized as follows: 1.. The expressions for σv within the backﬁll in trenches .e. etc. σv within the backﬁll at any depth is almost independent of φ in its practical range. . μ 2.

Continue… 3. K0. or KKrynine . Arching is almost insensitive to the φ of the backﬁll. 4. Rather. it is not necessary to direct any effort toward determining the friction angle of the backﬁll precisely. Therefore. . attention should be paid to the value of δ/φ and the appropriate expression for K. The average vertical stress within the backﬁll at any depth depends on the assumed value of δ/φ and lateral earth pressure coefficient Ka.

GIS-25 .

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