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Types of Wireless Networks

Infrastructure based(Cellular Network). Infrastructureless Network(Mobile Ad hoc Network( NETwork) (MANET). (MANET).

INTRODUCTION
Rapidly deployable, self configuring.  No need for existing infrastructure.  Wireless links.  Nodes are mobile, topology can be very dynamic.  Nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range.  A MANET can be a standalone network or it can be connected to external networks(Internet).


History of MANETs


Earliest MANETs were called packet radio networks, sponsored by DARPA (1970) These packet radio systems predated the Internet and were part of motivation of the original IP suite Later DARPA experiments included the Survivable Radio Network (SURAN) project (1980s) 1990s the advent of inexpensive 802.11 radio cards for personal computer Current MANETs are designed primary for military utility; examples include JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System) and NTDR (Near-Term Digital Radio). (Near-

DEFINITION
A "mobile ad hoc network" (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links --the union of --the which form an arbitrary graph. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. Sensor nodes consist of sensing, data processing, and communication components and typically form ad hoc networks. networks.

Types Of MANET


1.VANET:1.VANET:-Vehicular ad hoc network It is use for communication among vehicles. 2.InVANET:2.InVANET:-Intellingent vehicular ad hoc network It is artificial intelligence that helps vehicle to behave in intelligent manners during vehicle to vehicle collision,accident,drunken driving etc.

MANETs usage areas


     

Military scenarios Sensor networks Rescue operations Free Internet connection sharing Conferences The main two characteristics are mobility and multihop.

CHARACTERISTICS


Mobilization:It means transfer the information from one station to another. Multihop:It transfer the information through multistation.

Example

Mechanism
Multihop operation requires a routing mechanism  designed for mobile nodes.  Internet access mechanisms.  Self configuring networks requires an address allocation mechanism.  Mechanism to detect and act on, merging of existing networks.  Security mechanisms.


Routing Protocols for MANETs

Table Driven Routing Protocol


 

Proactive. Each node maintains one or more tables containing routing information to every other node in the network. Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date up-toview of the network. network. Updates propagate through the network

Source Initiated On demand routing protocol


 

Reactive. onon-demand style: create routes only when it is desired by the source node When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process Route is maintained until destination becomes unreachable, or source no longer is interested in destination.

ADVANTAGES
   

Wireless communication Mobility Not needed infrastructure Small and light weighted

Disadvantages
   

Less reliability and lower bandwidth Mobility is partitioning Limited sources like battery and power supply It can not count on infrastructure

Practical use


One Laptop per Child program has developed a laptop making use of an IEEE 802.11s based ad hoc wireless mesh networking chip. In September 2007, the Swedish company TerraNet AB presented a mesh network of mobile phones that allowed calls and data to be routed between participating handsets, without cell sites.

New Interactive Features


   

Context Sensitive Querying Cues Redframing Selection Sequences

Security issue
 

 

Attack from malicious nodes Authentication(accurate) and integrity(honest and fair) Confidentiality(kept secret) Protection of routing algorithm is critical.

TYPES OF ATTACK
External attack: nodes from outside the network. Internal attack: Already Authenticated(trusted),but compromised nodes

References


Rheingold, Howard (2002). "MAS 214, Macquarie University, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution". The Power of the Mobile Many: 288. Packet Radio Papers: Burchfiel, J., Tomlinson, R., Beeler, M. (1975). "Functions and structure of a packet radio station". AFIPS: 245. Kahn, R. E. (January 1977). "The Organization of Computer Resources into a Packet Radio Network". IEEE Transactions on Communications COM-25 (1): 169 COM169 178. Kahn, R. E., Gronemeyer, S. A., Burchfiel, J., Kunzelman, R. C. (November 1978). "Advances in Packet Radio Technology". Proceedings of IEEE 66 (11): 1468 1468 1496. doi:10.1109/PROC.1978.11151. Jubin, J., and Tornow, J. D. (January 1987). "The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols". Proceedings of the IEEE 75 (1). N. Schacham and J. Westcott (January 1987). "Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols". Proceedings of the IEEE 75 (1): 8399. 83 doi:10.1109/PROC.1987.13707.

 

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