Composite Materials


Faizan Saleem 10-MCT-27 10-MCT-30 10-MCT-38 10-MCT-49 10-MCT-62 10-MCT-69 .GROUP MEMBERS Malik Owais M. Zubair Saleem Mazhar Abbas Zirgham Ali Aamir Javed M.

Composites Materials .

.Composite Material Definition: Materials which are composed of two or more physically distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate properties that are different from those of its constituents .

1. The reinforcing phase is also called the secondary phase.Structural Components: y y Matrix Reinforcing phase. 2. Matrix is also called the primary phase. .

usually enclosing and often concealing it . the matrix shares the load with the secondary phase. When a load is applied. Matrix holds the imbedded phase in place.Matrix Material y y y y y Matrix is usually a metal or polymer since some ductility is desirable. in some cases deforming so that the stress is essentially born by the reinforcing agent . Matrix is temperature resistance. . Bonds with the fibers (Very important).

Matrix separates the individual fibers. Prevents brittle cracks to pass completely through the composite material.y y y y Matrix is chemical resistant. . Matrix protects the reinforcement from the chemical damage.

Reinforcing Phase y y Its function is to reinforce the primary phase . the secondary phase can take the form of an infiltrated phase in a skeletal or porous matrix Example: A powder metallurgy part infiltrated with polymer. Imbedded phase is most commonly one of the following shapes: Fibers Particles Flakes y In addition. .

and (c) flake .Possible physical shapes of imbedded phases in composite materials: (a) fiber. (b) particle.Reinforcing phase shapes Figure .

in which maximum strength and stiffness are obtained in the direction of the fiber Planar reinforcement.Fibers Orientation ± Three Cases y y y One-dimensional reinforcement. in some cases in the form of a two-dimensional woven fabric Random or three-dimensional in which the composite material tends to possess isotropic properties .

discontinuous fibers . continuous fibers in the form of a woven fabric.Fiber orientation in composite materials: (a) one-dimensional. and (c) random. continuous fibers. (b) planar.Fiber orientation Figure .

in theory.short lengths (L/D = roughly 100) Important type of discontinuous fiber are whiskers . . Discontinuous fibers.001 mm (0. they offer a continuous path by which a load can be carried by the composite part .Continuous fibers Vs.(chopped sections of continuous fibers) .very long.) with very high strength . Discontinuous Fibers y y Continuous fibers .hair-like single crystals with diameters down to about 0.00004 in.

Particles and Flakes y y y y A second common shape of imbedded phase is particulate. Flakes are basically two-dimensional particles . and therefore strength and other properties of the composite material are usually isotropic. ranging in size from microscopic to macroscopic . .small flat platelets . The distribution of particles in the composite matrix is random. Strengthening mechanism depends on particle size.

Requirements for Reinforcing material y y y y The reinforcing phase (i. Both matrix and fiber should not have greatly different co-efficient of linear expansion. Matrix must have a lower modulus of elasticity than fiber. Constituents of the composite should not react with one another at high temperature. .e. fibers or flakes) must be uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.

Classification of Composite materials based on Matrix phase 1. 3. 2. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) .

Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) Mixtures of ceramics and metals. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Al2O3 and SiC imbedded with fibers to improve properties. such as cemented carbides and other cermets . especially in high temperature applications o The least common composite matrix .

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) Thermosetting resins are widely used in PMCs Examples: Epoxy and polyester with fiber reinforcement. and phenolic with powders . .

Interfaces between phases in a composite material: (a) direct bonding between primary and secondary phases . For the composite to operate effectively. the phases must bond where they join at the interface Figure .The Interface y y There is always an interface between constituent phases in a composite material .

Figure .Interfaces between phases: (b) addition of a third ingredient to bond the primary phases and form an interphase . a third ingredient must be added to achieve bonding of primary and secondary phases . this third ingredient can be thought of as an adhesive .Interphase y y In some cases. Called an interphase.

Interfaces and interphases between phases in a composite material: (c) formation of an interphase by solution of the primary and secondary phases at their boundary . Figure .Another Interphase Interphase consisting of a solution of primary and secondary phases.

. an optimum combination of properties is usually sought. and tough. x Adding significant amounts of carbon black to NR increases its strength dramatically . Example: Fuselage and wings of an aircraft must be lightweight and be strong.Properties of Composite Materials y In selecting a composite material. rather than one particular property. stiff. x Several fiber -reinforced polymers possess this combination of properties Example: Natural rubber alone is relatively weak.

Toughness is often greater too . . Fatigue properties are generally better than for common engineering metals . ceramics. or polymers alone . Possible to achieve combinations of properties not attainable with metals. so ratios of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight are several times greater than steel or aluminum . Composites can be designed that do not corrode like steel .Advantages y y y y y Composites can be very strong and stiff. yet very light in weight.

.In next slides objects made of composite materials will be shown to enlighten their vast use in our lives.


edu/aplab/Table_of_Contents/Lab_05/Bone_Model_1/bone_model_1.uwlax.html .Bone a Composite Material Bone is a composite material with various different components Composition of Bone: ‡ ~45 wt% mineral salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) ‡ ~35 wt% organics (collagen protein) ‡ ~20 wt% water From: http://bioweb.


Composite materials in the Boeing 757 (courtesy of Boeing Commercial Airplane Group) .Figure .

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