"... you can't paint sunlight, you can only paint what it does with shadows on a wall. «And what if you're the wall? What if you never cast a shadow or rainbow of your own, but have only caught those cast by others?" -Wallace Stegner, The Spectator Bird,
1976

stardate.org

By: Richard H. Audet Roger Williams University

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Shadows and Light For the Teacher

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Lesson Overview
This is a two day lesson for grades 4-8. Students are introduced to shadows, explore how their shadow changes over the course of a day, and use their understanding of shadows to build a sundial. They are assessed by their explanation of how a sundial enables someone to tell the time of day.
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Instructional Goals
Students will develop an understanding of how shadows form, how shadows change over the course of a day, and be able to explain the principles of how a sundial operates.

www.ncf.ca

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Formative Assessment 
Students will be assessed on their ability to explain how a sundial can be used to tell the time of day.  In their explanation, students will have to properly use all of the following terms:  Shadow Gnomon Sun  Compass Light Compass

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Opening The Lesson

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Opening The Lesson

http://www.education-world.com/a_lesson/04/lp330-05.shtml

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Developing The Lesson - 1

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Developing The Lesson - 2
4. Have students complete a chart showing the times, shadow lengths, and the differences among shadow lengths. Then make time for students to share the results of the experiment with their classmates. Discuss why the shadow lengths changed from one time of day to another. Do any students connect the shadow measurements to the fact that the sun's position in the sky also seemed to change throughout the day? Help students understand that the position of the sun is the determining factor in the length of the shadow. The sun's position changes throughout the day. Since their positions (when measuring their shadows) did not change, the sun's position was responsible for the differing positions and lengths of their shadows. 5. As a follow-up activity, have students predict, note, and measure the lengths and positions of the shadows of other objects on the school grounds -- for example, the school itself, the flagpole, a tree«

From: http://www.education-world.com/a_lesson/04/lp330-05.shtml

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Closing The Lesson
Show students a picture of a sundial. Ask them if they know what this is and how it works. Describe and name the two parts of a sundial Review the student instructions for building a sundial. Explain to students that their performance on this lesson will be based on their ability to carefully explain how a sundial works.
From: oz.irtc.org/ftp/pub/stills/1996-0630/sundial.jpg

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Sundial Templates

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Teacher Resources
Lamp with no shade Large sheet white paper Masking tape Glue Chair Magazines Black marker or crayon Scissors

Chalk Clear paved area

Scissors Compass Scotch tape Craft knife

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Enrichment Activities 
Have students complete the Animal Shadows activity.  Here are two children¶s books that could be used to supplement this lesson.

Shadows on the Moon Jolyon Byerley

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Standardized Test Items

Source: http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDO E/Assessment/releasedtests.html

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Shadows and Light For the Student

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Tennessee Learning Goals
Earth and Space Science Content Standard: 7.0 Earth and Its Place in the Universe: The student will investigate the structure of the universe. Third Grade Benchmarks Learning Expectations 7.2 Recognize that there are predictable patterns which occur in the universe. Performance Indicator Teacher at Level 3, the student is able to  3.7.tpi.7. design an exploration for comparing the length of a shadow at different hours of the day. Fifth Grade Benchmarks Learning Expectations 7.1 Know that objects in space have identifiable characteristics, such as appearance, location, and apparent motion. 7.2 Investigate the patterns and movement of objects in space. Performance Indicator State at Level 3, the student is able to  4.7.spi.3 recognize that the length and position of a shadow is related to the location of the sun.

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Student Assessment 
You will be assessed on your ability to explain how a sundial can be used to tell the time of day.  In your explanation, you must properly use all of the following terms:  Shadow Gnomon Sun  Compass Light Compass

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What causes shadows? What causes day and night? You will need: Lamp with no shade Chair Large sheet white paper Magazines 1.

Masking tape Black marker or crayon Glue Scissors

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Place a chair close to a wall with nothing hanging on it. Turn the chair sideways. Leave enough space for you to walk between the wall and the chair. 2. Have your partner sit in the chair. The lamp should be placed at the spot where you stopped. It needs to be on top of something that is as high as her head. The room should be dark except for the light from the lamp. Your partner's face and head should make a shadow on the wall. Tape the large sheet of paper to the wall where you see the shadow. Trace the outline of her face onto the paper. Cut out the face and fill it with a collage of magazine pictures that show things you like.

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1. Print the sundial base and the gnomon. 2. You will need: Scissors Compass Scotch tape Craft knife 3. Place the main sheet on a hard surface and using the craft knife, cut down the line that says 'cut here' (ask an adult to help you). 4. Using the scissors, carefully cut out the template for the gnomon, the triangle shape. Once you have done that, fold it along the line. 5. Now place the gnomon inside the slit of the sundial template. You must make sure the right-angle is at the bottom of the sundial template.

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