€ €

Communication is the process of exchanging information by the use of words, letters, symbols, or nonverbal behavior. Managers spend as much as 37.5 hours per week in communication. The word communication has been derived from Latin word ´communisµ which means ´commonµ


´Communication is an exchange of facts,ideas,opinion,or emotion by two or more persons.µ W.H NEWMAN & C.F SUMMER ´Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person .It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts ,thoughts ,feelings and valuesµ IBID


Meaning based € Conventional € Interactional € Appropriate € Structural € Two-way communication

Information € Order € Persuasion € Warning € Motivation € Advice € Suggestion € Education € Raise moral

The Sender is the person trying to communicate a message € The Receiver is the person at whom the message is directed € A message is sent to convey information € Information is meant to change behaviour


Assign different meaning to the same word or use different words for the same meaning, or Words carry different nuances, shades or flavors to the transmitter & the receiver.

a. b. c. d.


Symbols with different meaning Badly expressed message Faulty translation Specialist language

EMOTIONAL BARRIER  Premature evaluation  Inattention  Loss by transmission/poor retention  Closed-minded  Laziness

ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIER  Organizational policy  Rules and regulation  Status relationship  Complexity  Organizational Facilities

BARRIER IN SUPERIOR  Attitudes of superior  Fear of challenges and authority  Insistence of proper channel  Lack of confidence in subordinate  Ignorance  Lack of time  Lack of awareness

BARRIER IN SUBORDINATE € Unwillingness € Lack of proper incentive

Clarity € Purpose of communication € Empathy € Two-way communication € Appropriate language € Good listening € Supporting words with action

€ Clarity € Completeness € Conciseness € Consideration € Courtesy € Correctness

These principles are fundamental importance and relevant to all media but they are most important to written communication.


Clarity : 1.Clarity of thought : Communication must be clear about 3 points: 1.What is the objective of communication ? 2.What is to be communicated ? 3.Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose ? Clarity of expression ; 1. Use of simple words Use them E.g.: Avoid them Demonstrate Show Terminate End 2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although will you be kind enough please


. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although Will you be kind enough please 3.Avoid double entry E.g.: previous experience during the year 1997 my personal opinion period of one week revert back end result actual fact experience during 1997 my opinion one week revert result fact

€ Completeness: 1. See if you have answered all the questions 2. Check for 5 W questions who, what, where, when and why € Conciseness: 1. Only relevant facts 2. No repetition 3. Proper organization of the message € Consideration: 1. Avoid gender bias 2. Emphasis positive, pleasant facts 3. Write only what you sincerely feel to be correct.

€ Courtesy:

1. Answer / acknowledge the letter promptly 2. Do not use irritating / offensive expression 3. Apologize sincerely for any omissions 4. Thanks
€ Correctness:

1.Give correct facts 2.Appropriate time 3.In a suitable style.

€ The

first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories

The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise.

Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication :



Limitation:  Under communication &over-communication  Delay  Loss of information  Distortion  Built in resistance



LIMITATION  Reluctance/unwillingness  Fear  Distortion  Insult







Communication is between department or people on same level in managerial hierarchy of an organization. € face to face discussion € Telephonic talk € Periodicals meetings € Memos

€ € € €

Deliberately created Official path Orderly single chain Timely



free flow inverted v

No definite rules € No set lines € Appointments,promotion,retrenchment, domestic affairs € Keith Davis has classified it into 4 basic types.


single strand

cluster probability

A safety value € Organizational solidarity and cohesion € Supplement to other channel € Quick transmission € Feedback

DEMERIT OF THE COMMUNICATION € Distortion € Incomplete information € Damaging swiftness

Government agencies and department  distribution,retailers,individual customer 

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION  Superior, subordinate, peer, departmental.


Communication transmitted without the use of words.

Non -Verbal Communication is the message or response not expressed or sent in words -hints , suggestions , indications. € Actions speak louder than words. € ³What you are speaks so loudly that I cannot hear what you say´ -Ralph Waldo Emerson

In fact, it is the most basic part of our personality.  Communication researcher Mehrabian found that only 7% of a message·s effect are carried by words ; listeners receive the other 93% through non -verbal means.  



The study of body language ³The bodily gestures, postures, and facial expressions by which a person communicates nonverbally with others´(Soukhanov 1992:211) KINESICS: ‡ POSTURE ‡ GESTURE ‡ FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ‡ GAZE / EYE CONTACT

The way in which someone usually stands or sits or hold his shoulder, neck and back.  Degree of involvement  Our perception of a person status. 

The face is an important source of information. € Since the face cannot be easily hidden, it is an important source of nonverbal information and communicates a variety of emotions. € In addition, eye contact, pupil size, and the smile provide additional cues to informed observers.

€ You

have 80 muscles in the face that can create more than 7,000 facial expressions


Movement of the head hands or legs to express an idea, feeling or emotions

The eyes can give clues to a person·s thoughts. ‡ When someone is excited, his pupils dilate to four times the normal size. ‡ An angry or negative mood causes the pupils to contract ‡ Good eye contact helps the audience develop the interest in the speaker.


It suggest not what is said but how it is said.

Tone  Pitch  Speed of delivery  Pause 

Message transmitted by physical setting of the office,ones·s clothes shoes and accessories € Indication the person·s status and taste.

4.PROXEMICS ‡ It is study of space between two interacting person


Study of space between interaction parties.

5.SILENCE  It is said to be more eloquent than words  Eg- respect,fear

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