SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste management is the term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, aesthetics or amenity. Waste management is also carried out to reduce the materials' effect on the environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

Municipal pollution is a continual global environmental issue. Study indicated that on the whole, Malaysian population generates 16,000 tones garbage/day (Utusan Malaysia, 24 th January 2004)- WP & Selangor 6,000 tones/day (Berita Harian 19th January 2004) The total amount of solid waste/rubbish collected from the rivers alone totaled 50 tones daily. Public not properly educated on waste disposal system NO 3R Concept; REUSE, REDUCE & RECYCLE. These 3R activities will reduce the volume of waste but cannot eliminate it.

54 8 2500 12030 Chenn ai 174.480 13.728 1400 12600 Calcut ta 187.0 0 5.517 16.1 6 5.610 17.survey on solid waste management in five metro cities City Area (sq km) Population (projected for 1999.20 6000 0.00 3100 0.4 6 12.50 6000 0.31 2200 0.042 5000 40483 Mumb ai 437.414 9.70 8 6000 22128 Pressure on landfill Safai Karmachari .00 3050 0.3 3 6.52 9 3050 10130 Delhi 1484.492 4.7 1 12. in millions) MSW generation (tonnes/day) MSW per capita (kg/day) Garbage pressure (tonnes/sq km) C o n t a n t P a g e Banga lore 226.

Klang valley ² 2.. estimate can fill rubbish/day. Although several waste management sites have been allocated and operational. (168 in Malaysia) Furthermore. . these are far from being sufficient.400 tones rubbish/day. the effect to health quality and environmental problem caused by traditional waste disposal has become more and more apparent.IMAGINE««««. Menara Berkembar PETRONAS /Stadium Bukit Jalil within 2 months Therefore there is a need for appropriate disposal methods for residual waste.

Al.128 425.134 78.582 112.228 140.269 30.8 0.167 97.9% ) .235 66.8 Total garbage collection per day (kg) 92.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.692 111.8 0.098.Kathirvale et. 2003 # Jabatan Perangkaan.989 80.902 340.my/socio_economy. 24 January 2004) Kelantan alone has produce garbage about 1099 ton/day Table 1: Statistic on garbage disposal rate for tha state of Kelantan District Bachok Kota Bharu Machang Pasir Mas Pasir Putih Tanah Merah Tumpat Gua Musang Kuala Krai Jeli Population (people)# 116. Malaysia 1995 & 2001 & Jabatan Perangkaan.653 172.000 ton garbage/day (Utusan Malaysia..548 (Ton) 93 340 66 138 89 87 113 64 78 31 TOTAL 1.373.8 0.538 1099 Source * S.791 64.173 1.801 86.294 82.gov. Kelantan 2001(http://kelantan.001 108.154 88.8 0.Malaysian public generates 16.836 38.htm) (Nota: Anggaran berasaskan banci penduduk tahun 2000 atas kadar pertumbuhan Tahunan Purata Penduduk sebanyak 0.185 Disposal rate/day (kg/people/day)* 0.8 0.122 138.

2003 ].Data below show the sources of municipal waste in Kuala Lumpur which is categorized as residential. . institutional and commercial sectors [ Sivapalan.

COMPOSITION IN PAPER C6H10O5)n .

COMPOSITION IN PLASTIC .

1998). a MSW facility should be (Garrod & Willis.  Environmentally friendly  Economically sound  Socially acceptable To ensure & increase public acceptance of a MSW facility. 1999) To be accepted.Locating disposal facility in nearby housing facility is a predominant acceptance problem (Joos.  Dialog with neighbours / public involvement in the planning stage  understand public concern  understand concepts of MSW management facilities and it·s operation .

chance of community involvement . 2001) 2.reliability of technology .fear of pollution occuring . Pollution & it¶s health effect .vibration .community facility .decrease of property value 4. Reliability of institution .safety of facility . Information disclosure .employment 5.accessibility to information 6.vector insect & pest . Damage to environment .odour .good appearance of facility .dust & litter .noise . Heat .conversion of the environment 3.fear of risk (Becker.facility sitting process . Nuisance .public services eg. Convenience of facility .impairment of landscape & view .disproportionate sitting .Table: 1 Factors related to public acceptance of MSW facilities 1.influence on flora & fauna/wild life .

Chief components of municipical solid waste (MSW) management Industrial Residential Commercial MSW production MSW management Recycling Composting Waste to energy Methane gas Landfill Aluminium glass paper Plastic iron End-user (energy) .

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recycling 5. disposal . transport WASTE MANAGEMENT 3.1. collection 2. processing 4.

including type of waste material. Disposal methods Landfill Incineration Recycling methods Pyrolysis (Energy recovery) . nearby land uses. and the area available.Waste management methods vary widely between areas for many reasons.

Historically. and is a greenhouse gas . and this remains a common practice in most countries. landfills were often established in disused quarries. mining voids or borrow pits. kill surface vegetation. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide). Older.1. attraction of vermin. Landfill Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems. and generation of liquid leachate. poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter.

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Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. . Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability. and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas.Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material.

. due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal. liquid and gaseous waste. steam and/or electricity. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat. gas. and ash. steam. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat. It is used to dispose of solid. and on a large scale by industry. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals.Incineration A disposal method that involves combustion of waste material.

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Physical reprocessing Recycling methods Biological reprocessing .

. or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity.Recycling methods The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling. and are described briefly below. New methods of recycling are being developed continuously. meaning to recover or reuse the material. There are a number of different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed.

sorted and baled for recycling .Steel scrap.

LDPE. magazines. making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. due to the additional dismantling and separation required . glass bottles and jars. steel food and aerosol cans. PP. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles. paperboard cartons. HDPE and PET bottles. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum beverage cans. newspaper.The popular meaning of ¶recycling· in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. or sorted directly from mixed waste streams. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult. These items are usually composed of a single type of material. although these are not as commonly collected. and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC. and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable.

Waste materials that are organic in nature. such as plant material. can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. An active compost heap . In addition. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter. and paper products. food scraps. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity.

Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods. to industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment). where household organic waste (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are collected in a dedicated container and then composted. . though hybrids of the two methods also exist. An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto. Canada.There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps.

The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. liquid and gas products.Energy recovery The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid. Gasification is used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. . or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating. to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability.

rubbish is more than just papers. Therefore.MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT In actual fact. In the meantime. we need solid waste management as certain rubbish have to be collected and properly disposed of using safe. well-implemented waste management system. environmentally-friendly solution for the municipalities in Malaysia ant it¶s population . we continue to seek a better.

including the atmosphere. Sanitary landfills represent a common and economically acceptable method for waste disposal [Chuah.  Causes underground water resource pollution  Opposition from the public.smell. . Drawbacks .  Occupies an enormous amount of land. stigma of bad health makes sanitary land filling a less attractive method.MSW SCENARIO IN MALAYSIA Currently. 1999].  Contaminates the environment. the majority of the municipal household garbage is disposed via ¶open dumpingµ. water and soil.

non-systematic open dumping without any care to the environment. managed by Worldwide Landfills Sdn Bhd.  Stage 1 ² Controlled filling with slight control of environmental pollution. (Hutan Simpan Air Hitam (AHSL). Puchong-closed) International Stages of solid disposal. smell. Kuala Selangor. .  Stage Zero (0) . breeding of rats and insects. dusty. etc. Results in pollution to ground water system. sanitary land fill located in Bukit Tagar. etc.In Malaysia. Problems in surface water and ground water pollution. breeding of rats and insects.

 Stage 3 ² specific disposal location with leachate recycling. Stage 2 . Problems in un-controlled leachate and nonsystematic monitoring.specific disposal location with daily fillingsystematic drainage and more systematic in their operation. Problems in that ground water pollution due to leachate cannot be avoided since there is no liner or geo-membrane. of Environment (DOE). .specific disposal location with leachate recycling system and liner. Leachate is collected and recycled. Most environmentally friendly system meeting all the criteria required by Dept. Categorise as a modern disposal location.  Stage 4 .

and infrastructure for recycling of leachate. It also include a system for Leachate collection and treatment before discharged to the environment. In contrast. in US and Canada. incineration of waste accounts for only 5² 10%. and Luxembourg. > 70% of municipal solid waste is burned in Switzerland. . which possess vast territories. Examples.  It include collection and oxidation pond. BUKIT TAGAR ² CONFIGURATION Countries with limited land resources-have mainly adopted burning trash/incineration as a means of reducing the volume of waste. This system employ the use of liner and geomembrane at the base to prevent ground pollution. Japan.

some chemicals from the waste can form toxic gases. Furthermore.  reduces trash volume and provides energy. nearly 25% residue of the total waste still needs to be land filled. such as dioxins and hydrogen chloride.  incineration has the advantage of reducing waste volume. without waste separation.  generates energy and supplies electricity to the city. Pyrolysis could be considered as an option . But deploying incineration.Advantages of incineration over landfill.

COMPARISON OF PROCESS INCINERATION PROCESS ‡ Use excess oxygen for burning ‡ Common reaction [Garbage + Oxygen CO2 + H2O + Gas (Toxic)] PYROLYSIS PROCESS ‡ Use MINIMAL / NO oxygen. Involve CRACKING of molecules ‡ Common reaction [Garbage + HEAT small molecule/compound + Heat + Char/Ash] .

such as Germany and the US. developed countries. 1998]. higher temperature and dramatically reduced air flow rate [Calaminus. have chosen pyrolysis technology for waste disposal. Therefore. . The new municipal waste pyrolysis treatment technology differs from the technology mentioned above.Both pyrolysis and incineration have been applied in recent years for the purpose of energy recovery. Controlling emissions is easier in pyrolysis than in incineration due to reduced oxygen content.

produces purified combustible gas and does not discharge pollutants. water gas reaction and so on. Employs advanced pyrolysis to dispose of waste.Besides decomposing. without the requirement of fast cooling. (reduced to about 900 rC). it is regarded as an ideal waste management equipment. Therefore. it also contains: coke oxygenation. carbon dioxide. and consumes no external resource. . It overcomes the defects of high-temperature burning. The major heat comes from the waste itself.

Fragmentation of a complex structure (wood) during pyrolysis (Extracted from BTG Biomass Technology Group BV 2002-2003) .Figure1.

Pyrolysis characterized (Extracted from BTG Biomass Technology Group BV 2002-2003) .Figure 2.

Avoidance and Reduction methods An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans). The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam.

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include: 1.Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

2.Extended producer responsibility Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. 3.Polluter pays principle The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the natural environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.

as much as possible. have a longer life. or "source reduction. redesigning products to use less raw material in production. so it is the most preferred method of waste management and goes a long way toward protecting the environment." means consuming and throwing away less. which includes buying products with recycled content. and Recycle Reduce .containers and products. Reduce Waste prevention. seeking products and packaging that are as free of toxics as possible. repair what is broken or give it to someone who can repair it. Reuse.the amount and toxicity of trash you discard. long-lasting goods.Produce Less Waste by Practicing the 3 Rs: Reduce. Source reduction actually prevents the generation of waste in the first place. or be used again after its original use. Recycle . It includes: purchasing durable. Reuse . .

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cleaning products and pesticides). Ultimately. Throughout the life cycle of a product-from extraction of raw materials to transportation to processing and manufacturing facilities to manufacture and use-waste is generated. Selecting nonhazardous or less hazardous items is another important component of source reduction. Reduces toxicity of waste. and using the smallest amount necessary are ways to reduce waste toxicity.g. Reusing items or making them with less material decreases waste dramatically. .. less materials will need to be recycled or sent to landfills or waste combustion facilities. sharing products that contain hazardous chemicals instead of throwing out leftovers. reading label directions carefully.Source Reduction and Reuse Benefits Saves natural resources. Using less hazardous alternatives for certain items (e. Waste is not just created when consumers throw items away.

When these households reduce waste at the source. The benefits of preventing waste go beyond reducing reliance on other forms of waste disposal. businesses. . More than 6.000 communities have instituted "pay-asyou-throw" programs where citizens pay for each can or bag of trash they set out for disposal rather than through the tax base or a flat fee. Preventing waste also can mean economic savings for communities. schools.Reduces costs. Communities. and individual consumers. they dispose of less trash and pay lower trash bills.

Consumers also can share in the economic benefits of source reduction. with less packaging. Buying products in bulk. What is good for the environment can be good for the pocketbook as well. Industry also has an economic incentive to practice source reduction. with savings that can be passed on to the consumer. they are buying less raw material. or that are reusable (not single-use) frequently means a cost savings. When businesses manufacture their products with less packaging. Consumers.Businesses. . A decrease in manufacturing costs can mean a larger profit margin.

Regardless of the method used to collect the recyclables. . Step 1. Collection and Processing Collecting recyclables varies from community to community. manufacturing recycled-content products.Recycling Process Collecting and processing secondary materials. and then purchasing recycled products creates a circle or loop that ensures the overall success and value of recycling. buyback centers. Recyclables are bought and sold just like any other commodity. but there are four primary methods: curbside. and deposit/refund programs. the next leg of their journey is usually the same. and prices for the materials change and fluctuate with the market. Recyclables are sent to a materials recovery facility to be sorted and prepared into marketable commodities for manufacturing. drop-off centers.

Step 3." governments. plastic. each play an important role in making the recycling process a success. As consumers demand more environmentally sound products. By "buying recycled. as well as businesses and individual consumers. Common household items that contain recycled materials include newspapers and paper towels. Manufacturing Once cleaned and separated. and pedestrian bridges. Recycled materials also are used in innovative applications such as recovered glass in roadway asphalt (glassphalt) or recovered plastic in carpeting. Purchasing Recycled Products Purchasing recycled products completes the recycling loop. and glass soft drink containers.Step 2. park benches. manufacturers will continue to meet that demand by producing high-quality recycled products. aluminum. the recyclables are ready to undergo the second part of the recycling loop. steel cans.. . More and more of today's products are being manufactured with total or partial recycled content. and plastic laundry detergent bottles.

For recycling to work. Today. recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators. small businesses. While recycling has grown in general. recycling of specific materials has grown even more drastically: 52 percent of all paper. a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years.Recycling Facts and Figures In 1999. 31 percent of all plastic soft drink bottles. everyone has to participate in each phase of the loop. 45 percent of all aluminum beer and soft drink cans. 63 percent of all steel packaging. and people at home. this country recycles 32. to organizations.5 percent of its waste. From government and industry. and 67 percent of all major appliances are now recycled. every American can make recycling a part of their daily routine .

Supplies valuable raw materials to industry. Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants.Benefits of Recycling Conserves resources for our children's future. . Saves energy. Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators. Creates jobs. Stimulates the development of greener technologies.

into humus. and many other applications Benefits of Composting Keeps organic wastes out of landfills. Provides nutrients to the soil. Assists pollution remediation. landscaping.g. which can be used in vegetable and flower gardens. such as food and yard wastes. . Suppresses certain plant diseases. a soil-like material. Increases beneficial soil organisms (e. Composting is nature's way of recycling organic waste into new soil.. Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Protects soils from erosion.Composting Another form of recycling is composting. worms and centipedes). Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter.

which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. widely-used concepts include: Waste hierarchy ² The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce. . Some of the most general. reuse and recycle. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies.There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions.

Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market.Extended producer responsibility Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste. . Polluter pays principle The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the natural environment. import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. With respect to waste management. This means that firms which manufacture.

if mishandled. These products. can be dangerous to your health and the environment. ." "caution." or "poison" identify products that might contain hazardous materials. and pesticides contain hazardous components. we can make sure that leftovers are managed properly." "corrosive. cleaners." "toxic. batteries. One way to help determine if your household waste has hazardous components is to read the labels on products. The best way to handle HHW is to reduce the amount initially generated by giving leftover products to someone else to use. oils.Household Hazardous Waste Common household items such as paints." "flammable. Although we cannot completely stop using hazardous products. many communities have collection programs for HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals." "warning. Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste (HHW). Labels that read "danger. Although federal laws allow the disposal of HHW in the trash.

health. However.Disposal Options Certain types of HHW have the potential to cause physical injury to sanitation workers. Federal law allows disposal of HHW in the trash. Read product labels for disposal directions to reduce the risk of products exploding. . EPA encourages participation in these HHW collection programs rather than discarding the HHW in the trash. and present hazards to children and pets if left around the house. contaminate septic tanks or wastewater treatment systems if poured down drains or toilets. or solid waste agency for the time and location of your HHW collection program. igniting. Check your local environmental. Even empty containers of HHW can pose hazards because of the residual chemicals that might remain. mixing with other chemicals. many communities have collection programs for HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals. leaking. or posing other hazards on the way to a disposal facility.

000 HHW permanent programs and collection events throughout the United States. Reuse of hazardous household products can save money and reduce the need for generating hazardous substances. many communities started special collection days or permanent collection sites for handling HHW. During the 1980s. In 1997. . Proper disposal prevents pollution that could endanger human health and the environment. HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals.HW Facts and Figures The average home can accumulate as much as 100 pounds of HHW in the basement and garage and in storage closets. Benefits of Proper HHW Management Reduction and recycling of HHW conserves resources and energy that would be expended in the production of more products. there were more than 3.

includes municipal solid waste. industrial waste. . Solid Waste Landfills . designed. Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration . operated.waste volume is reduced in a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration Solid Waste Landfills Modern landfills are well-engineered facilities that are located. 2. Solid waste landfills must be designed to protect the environment from contaminants which may be present in the solid waste stream. and bioreactors.MSW Disposal There are two types of MSW Disposal: 1. construction and demolition debris. and monitored to ensure compliance with federal regulations.

There are several types of solid waste landfills: 1. bioreactors 3. many new landfills collect potentially harmful landfill gas emissions and convert the gas into energy.The landfill sitting plan (location).which monitor for any sign of groundwater contamination and for landfill gas provide additional safeguards. municipal solid waste 2. industrial waste . In addition. prevents the sitting of landfills in environmentally sensitive areas on-site environmental monitoring systems. construction and demolition debris 4.

control litter. or equivalent state regulations. Federal MSWLF standards include: 1. or other restricted areas. . 2.1. flood plains. wetlands. Operating practices³include compacting and covering waste frequently with several inches of soil help reduce odor. insects. All MSWLFs must comply with the federal regulations in 40 CFR Part 258 (Subtitle D of RCRA). 3. Composite liners requirements³include a flexible membrane (geomembrane) overlaying two feet of compacted clay soil lining the bottom and sides of the landfill. protect groundwater and the underlying soil from leachate releases. industrial solid waste. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Municipal solid waste landfills (MFWLFs) receive household waste. Leachate collection and removal systems³sit on top of the composite liner and removes leachate from the landfill for treatment and disposal. Location restrictions³ensure that landfills are built in suitable geological areas away from faults. and rodents. 5. and construction and demolition debris. Groundwater monitoring requirements³requires testing groundwater wells to determine whether waste materials have escaped from the landfill. 4. and protect public health. MSWLFs can also receive non-hazardous sludge.

and pesticides.. Many municipal landfills have a household hazardous waste drop-off station for these materials.6. . Some materials may be banned from disposal in municipal solid waste landfills including common household items such as paints. Closure and postclosure care requirements²include covering landfills and providing long-term care of closed landfills. batteries. if mishandled.e. cleaners/chemicals. can be dangerous to your health and the environment. These products. closure and postclosure care). 7. motor oil. Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste. Financial assurance³provides funding for environmental protection during and after landfill closure (i. Corrective action provisions³control and clean up landfill releases and achieves groundwater protection standards. 8.

4. The increase in waste degradation and stabilization is accomplished through the addition of liquid and. Bioreactor Landfills Bioreactors are municipal solid waste landfills that are designed to quickly transform and degrade organic waste. commercial buildings. C&D landfills are subject to less stringent standards than municipal solid waste landfills due to the relatively inert nature of C&D debris materials. brick. asphalt. Subparts A and B. 3. air to enhance microbial processes. Industrial Waste Landfills These landfills are designed for the management of non-hazardous industrial process wastes. and some types of plastics generated during the construction and demolition of homes. Industrial waste consists of a wide variety of non-hazardous materials that result from the production of various goods and products.2. and other structures. Bioreactors are a new approach to landfill design and operation that differ from the traditional "dry tomb" municipal landfill approach. asphalt roofing shingles. in some cases. Industrial waste landfills are subject to the federal requirements in 40 CFR Part 257. as well as any state-specific regulations. . Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris Landfills These landfills accept only C&D debris such as concrete. drywall. metals. wood.

combustors.Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration Burning MSW can generate energy while reducing the amount of waste by up to 90 percent in volume and 75 percent in weight. Over one-fifth of the U. municipal solid waste incinerators use refuse derived fuel (RDF). metals. In contrast to mass burning²where the municipal solid waste is introduced "as is" into the combustion chamber²RDF facilities are equipped to recover recyclables (e. local governments or private operators can implement a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration. Incineration facilities can also remove materials for recycling.g. can convert water into steam to fuel heating systems or generate electricity.S. To reduce waste volume. then shred the combustible fraction into fluff for incineration.. glass) first. when properly equipped. cans. In addition to reducing volume. .

A variety of pollution control technologies significantly reduce the gases emitted into the air. Regular testing ensures that residual ash is non-hazardous before being landfilled. About ten percent of the total ash formed in the combustion process is used for beneficial use such as daily cover in landfills and road construction. including:  Scrubbers³devices that use a liquid spray to neutralize acid gases  Filters³remove tiny ash particles Burning waste at extremely high temperatures also destroys chemical compounds and disease-causing bacteria. .

Name : Environmental Quality (Dioxin and Furan) Regulations 2004 Date of regulations were gazetted : 25 March 2004 Date of regulations come into force : 1 May 2004 These regulations apply to the 4 facilities. 1) Municipal solid wastes incinerator 2) Scheduled waste incinerator 3) Pulp or paper industry sludge incinerator 4) Sewage sludge incinerator Concentration limit for air emission of Dioxin and Furan : 0.1 nanogram/Nm3 TEQ .

(a) Dibenzo-para-dioxin. (b) dibenzofuran.Fig. 4. .

Homologues and congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs .

. while the fully chlorinated octachloro congeners are abbreviated as OCDDs and OCDFs.8-TCDD. correspondingly. respectively. ‡The congener with greatest toxicity is 2. ‡The toxicity varies substantially among different PCDDs and PCDFs.3. for example.7.‡The homolog groups are often abbreviated for convenience. which has been intensively investigated. ‡It is generally accepted that only 17 out of the 210 dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners are toxic. tetrachloro CDDs and CDFs (PCDD/Fs with four substituted chlorine atoms) are abbreviated as TCDDs and TCDFs.

Since 2.8-TCDD. it is assigned by convention a toxicity rating of 1.7.8-TCDD is the most toxic congener.0 (called a toxic equivalent factor or TEF). The TEFs for the other 2.3.3.3.8-positional congeners are determined by the ratio of the toxicity of each individual congeners to that of 2.7.8-positional congener present in the mixture by its respective TEF. The toxicity of any mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs can then be expressed by multiplying the concentration percentage of each individual 2. The result for each congener is called the toxic equivalent (TEQ) .7.7.3.

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and facilities that can demonstrate that there is no potential for the migration of hazardous constituents from the unit into the groundwater. . To monitor groundwater. facility owners and operators must install a groundwater monitoring system that can collect samples from the uppermost aquifer (defined as the geological formation nearest the natural surface that is capable of yielding significant quantities of groundwater to wells or springs). The exceptions to this requirement are small landfills that receive less than 20 tons of solid waste per day.Groundwater Monitoring Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWFs) Nearly all municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) are required to monitor the underlying groundwater for contamination during their active life and post-closure care period.

Detection monitoring 2.The groundwater monitoring system consists of a series of wells placed upgradient and downgradient of the MSWLF. groundwater flow rate and direction. Corrective action . and depth of wells is determined on a site-specific basis based on the aquifer thickness. while the downgradient wells show the extent of groundwater contamination caused by the MSWLF. and the other geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site. The samples from the upgradient wells show the background concentrations of constituents in the groundwater. Assessment monitoring 3. spacing. All groundwater monitoring systems must be certified by a qualified groundwater scientist and must comply with the sampling and analytical procedures outlined in the regulations. There are three phases of the groundwater monitoring requirements: 1. The required number of wells.

. a natural fluctuation in groundwater quality. The frequency of sampling is determined on a site-specific basis by the state regulatory agency. If at any time during the detection monitoring phase.e. a false positive result). analysis. or caused by another source. or statistical evaluation error (i. the MSWLF owner/operators must notify the state regulatory agency.Detection Monitoring This consists of sampling at least semi-annually throughout the facility·s active life and post-closure care period. The facility must establish an assessment monitoring program within 90 days unless the owner/operators can prove that the detection of the constituent(s) was the result of a sampling. . one of the 62 constituents is detected at a statistically significant higher level than the established background level.

.Assessment Monitoring Within 90 days of detecting a statistically significant increase in the constituents listed in Appendix I constituents. or the background level of the groundwater at the site if no MCL exists. If any of the constituents listed in Appendix II are detected. and is based either on the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for that constituent. the owner/operators must then establish the background levels for these constituents and establish a groundwater protection standard (GWPS) for each. . a MSWLF must begin an assessment monitoring program. samples must be taken from all wells and analyzed for the presence of all 214 constituents listed in Appendix II of 40 CFR Part 258 . As a first step. The GWPS represents the maximum allowable constituent level in the groundwater.

the background level is used for the GWPS Within 90 days of establishing the background levels and the GWPS. determine if the contamination has migrated beyond the facility boundary. the owner/operators of the MSWLF must characterize the nature of the release. Resampling then must be repeated at least semiannually. If.In cases where the site-specific background level is higher than the MCL. any of the constituents are detected at a statistically significant level higher than the GWPS. however. the owner/operators must then resample for all constituents listed in Appendix I and Appendix II previously detected. the facility may return to the detection monitoring phase. . If none of the Appendix II constituents are found to exceed the GWPS for two consecutive sampling events. and begin assessing corrective measures.

and manage any solid waste generated in accordance with all applicable RCRA regulations. The facility must continue these remedial actions until it has complied with the GWPS for three consecutive years and can demonstrate that all required actions have been completed. control the source(s) of the release to prevent further releases. . Any corrective measure selected must be protective of human health and the environment. a remedy is selected and corrective action begins.Corrective Action Based upon the assessment of corrective measures. meet the GWPS.