Memristor ² The Fourth Fundamental Circuit Element .

. Capacitors & Inductors.Introduction € € € € € Currently known fundamental passive elements ² Resistors..? Leon O. Memistors are passive two terminal circuit elements. Chua formulated Memristor theory in his paper ´Memristor-The Missing Circuit Elementµ in 1971. Behaves like a nonlinear resistor with memory. Does a 4th passive element exist.

and flux linkage € Six possible combinations of these four variables € Five already defined as Resistor(dv=Rdi). voltage v. Inductor(d =Ldi).History Of Memristor Four fundamental circuit variables. charge q. q(t)=œi(T)dT. (t)=œv(T)dT € The 6th relation defines memristance as d =Mdq € . Capacitor(dq=Cdv).current i.

Relation between fundamental circuit elements and variables .

€ When the flow of charge regains. charge flow stops & component will ¶remember· the last resistance it had. the resistance of the circuit will be the value when it was last active. € When v=0. € .So what is Memristance? Memristance is a property of an electronic component. € When charge flows in one direction. resistance decreases. its resistance increases. and if direction is reversed.

M(q) = d m/dq M(q) = [d m/dt] / [dq/dt] = V/I V(t) = M(q(t))I(t) The memristor is static if no current is applied. If I(t)=0. . This is the essence of the memory effect.Memristor Theory € € € € € € Two terminal device in which magnetic flux m between its terminals is a function of amount of electric charge q passed through the device. then V(t)=0 and M(t) is a constant.

In case of resistor. Memristor is analogous to a special kind of pipe that expands or shrinks when water flows through it The pipe is directive in nature. Water(charge q). until water is turned back on.hysical analogy for a memristor € € € € € € Resistor is analogous to a pipe that carries water. rate of flow of water(current i). input pressure(voltage v). flow of water is faster if pipe is shorter and/or has a larger diameter. If water pressure is turned off. . pipe will retain its most recent diameter.

2008. other non-depleted layer. The depleted layer has much lower resistance than the non-depleted layer. Stanley Williams announced the discovery of a switching memristor. Initially there are two layers. The HP device is composed of a thin (5nm) Titanium dioxide film between two Pt electrodes.Titanium dioxide memristor € € On April 30. It achieves a resistance dependent on the history of current using a chemical mechanism. a team at HP Labs led by the scientist R. one slightly depleted of Oxygen atoms. € € € .

or about 150 atoms in total width. with the resistance of each device depending on the amount of charge that has moved through each one. The wires in this image are 50 nm wide. The devices act as 'memory resistors'.Microscopic image of memristor row € An atomic force microscope image of a simple circuit with 17 memristors lined up in a row. Each memristor has a bottom wire that contacts one side of the device and a top wire that contacts the opposite side. .

v-i characteristics .

changing boundary between high & low resistance layers. when voltage v=0. The device enters hysteresis when enough charge has passed through memristor & ions can no longer move.) € € € € € The most common v-i trace is a ¶figure 8· or a ¶pinched loop· For this current i=0. oxygen vacancies drift. . Memristance is only displayed when the doped layer & depleted layer both contribute to resistance.(cont. On the application of electric field..v-i chara.

€ Introduced memristance formula for devices. € Introduced the titanium dioxide memristor. € .Contribution of HP Labs HP Lab scientists were first to observe the ¶memristive behaviour· in materials.

Memristance formula € For linear ionic drift in a uniform field with average ion mobility µv. Thus memristance is important characteristics of a device when critical dimension shrink to nanometer scale. € € The 2nd term in the parentheses which contribute more to memristance becomes larger when D is in the nanometer range. .

we can move the boundary to adjust the device resistance from RON to ROFF. of dopants having low resistance RON & remaining portion having zero dopant conc. and much higher resistance ROFF. applied current or voltage will cause a great change in resistance. The semiconductor film has a region of high conc.Operation as a switch € € € For some memristors. By application of external bias. .

The Hewlett-Packard team has successfully created working circuits based on memristors that are as small as 15 nanometers. Replace today·s commonly used dynamic random access memory (DRAM). . Ultimately. Denser cells allow memristor circuits to store more data than flash memory.Applications & Advantages € € € € can now think about fabricating a non-volatile random access memory (RAM) ² or memory chips that don't forget the data when a computer is shut off. Memristors carries a memory of its past. it will be possible to make memristors as small as about four nanometers.

. less power and less time to turn on than competitive memory like DRAM and flash.) € € € A memristor circuit requires lower voltage. . The ability to store and retrieve a vast array of intermediate values also pave the way to a completely different class of computing capabilities like an analog computer in which you don't use 1s and 0s only.(cont. It does not require power to maintain its memory.Applications & Advantages.

The graphs in William·s report shows switching operation at only 1Hz. . Although small dimension of device seems to imply fast operation.Practical limitations of memristor € € € The most significant limitation is that the memristors functions at about one-tenth the speed of today·s DRAM memory cells. the charge carriers move very slowly.

It takes a lot of transistors and capacitors to do the job of a single memristor.Conclusion € € € € € The rich hysteretic v-i characteristics detected in many thin film devices can now be understood as memristive behaviour. This behaviour is more relevant as active region in devices shrink to nanometer thickness. No combination of R.C circuit could duplicate the memristance.L. . So the memristor qualifies as a fundamental circuit element.

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