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Foundation for Effective Leadership and Management

Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM Clinical Instructor
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Leaders of today….
Emotional Intelligence (EI)

Process of regulating both feelings and expressions Organizationally desired emotions are considered standards of behavior
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Leaders of today….
Emotional Intelligence (EI)

A leader with EI possesses the ability to identify emotions in his/her self and others Uses emotions in processes, manages emotions in his/her self and others and understands and reasons with emotions
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Leaders of today….
Cultural Bridges

Diversity Culturally sensitive leaders Assists staff when cultural misunderstanding occurs
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Leaders of today….
Influence of Followers on Leaders

Leaders need to be aware of their followers’ influence Followers’ influence can be positive or negative

No guarantee that followers will not mislead the Chapter 14 leader

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Leaders of today….
Recognition and Management of Flaws
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Good leader….bad leader Deceitful……trustworthy Brave……cowardly leader Future theory should focus why leaders behave badly
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Understanding Power

Power
“the ability to do or act” “capability of doing or accomplishing something”

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Understanding Power
POWER

Ability to control and influence others (Dahl, et al 1957) In Nursing management ….. “ someone who can control” Someone who exercises control
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Understanding Power
“Power is a pyramid having elements of ability, based on strength, willingness based on energy, and action that yields results” Who possesses Power?

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“Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results…”
Albert Einstein
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Understanding Power Quantifying Power

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Power differs between individuals and within the same individual at different times Is the quantity of power subject to some limit? Yes or No?

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Understanding Power Quantifying Power

If power in certain situation is limited, those who wish to exercise more power must obtain it from someone else who possesses it…. conflict arises!!!

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Understanding Power Quantifying Power

If power is not limited, then one individual can increase power without decreasing the power of someone Seeking power doesn’t necessarily bring conflict…esp if power seeking is to accomplish common goal
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Understanding Power Quantifying Power
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It is possible more that one person hold power If the two people in power want opposing things…conflict then is expected to arise

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POWER AND NURSING
According to Tannenbaum and Cook …common distaste for the idea of power, which relate to unpleasant connotation of control in a democratic society… Nurse=nurturing role Power is inappropriate for a nurse because it is seen as controlling rather than supporting others….
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Types of Power
Legitimate Power
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Termed as authority Arises from an organizational structure and policies that place control in specific positions in the organization

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Types of Power
Legitimate Power

Whoever holds the position holds same amount of authority Person who holds legitimate power is usually given a title that indicate authority

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Types of Power Legitimate Power

HN/UM has legitimate power associated with the responsibility for a patient care unit Charge nurse in the evening shift is delegated to have the authority

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Types of Power
Referent Power

Is control that derives its base in personal characteristics of a powerful person Charisma has been used to describe referent power

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Types of Power Referent Power
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Usually seen in political figures In hospital setting, a very popular and outgoing nurse may influence decisions in ways that do not reflect any official position in the organization
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" I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival."
Winton Churchill
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“Never, never, never, give up.” W. Churchill

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Types of Power Referent Power

An aspect of this power is appearing to be a powerful person Those with referent power remain calm in crisis, control their emotional responses, and act with firm determination
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Types of Power Referent Power

Manner of dress is also associated with this power
• “Power dressing” • “Power suit” • Avoid extreme fashion
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Types of Power Reward Power

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Helps people exert control through providing reward or the promise of rewards to others Often associated with legitimate power Someone who can decide for increase salary, etc Many other people control rewards
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Types of Power Expert Power

Helps individuals attain control through the possession of special knowledge, skill or ability Experts are able to accomplish their ends because others recognize their knowledge and ability and turn to them for guidance Expert’s opinion has more weight
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Types of Power Coercive Power

Helps individual attain control through fear, threat, or coercion Authoritarian leaders tend to be coercive

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Types of Power

Coercive Power

Controls through fear of loss of job, punishment, such as undesirable assignments or shifts Law exercises coercive power to maintain safety for citizens
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Types of Power

Coercive Power

In hospital setting this is used to solve problems that involve potential danger to clients If a nurse in substance abuse, this may be applicable
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Types of Power Connection Power

Control derived from a coalition of individuals working together or from the perception by others that an individual has connection with powerful persons or group

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Types of Power Connection Power
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Nepotism Favoritism….promotion Nurses shortage = connection power can be strong

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Types of Power Information Power

Occurs when a person controls information that is needed by others Not same as expert power

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Types of Power Information Power

Knowledge of institutions budget or income Can you give example of this in nursing management?

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Resources for Developing Power

Physical resources
• Health • The better the general health, the easier it will be to become powerful
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Resources for Developing Power

Psychological Resources
• Motivational power • Strong self-esteem, self-concept • Without positive value of self will not project competence and resourcefulness • Clear awareness of strengths and limitations
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Resources for Developing Power

Psychological Resources
• Maintain positive and forward outlook • Looks at difficulties as challenges to overcome • When mistakes occur, you look for solutions rather blame someone
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Resources for Developing Power

Material Resources
• Money or objects • Network • E.g. surgery in hospital setting

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Consequences of Using Power

Accountability
• When results are positive, accountability enables person to grow in self-esteem • Person must accept the fact that mistakes or errors can occur. Power tends to diminish

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Consequences of Using Power

Change in personal relationships
• Threats to loss of control • Lost of relationships

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Consequences of Using Power

New personal relationships may be gained
• Closer relationship with powerful person • Individuals who agree with you goals may align themselves with you
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Increasing your Power
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Improve self Examine your motivation Maintain positive outlook and increase problem- solving skills Seek promotion Power dressing

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Increasing your Power
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Reward power….recognition and praise Continuing education, inservice studies, reading and study Staying in nursing coalition Gaining access to budgetting figures, planning details Understanding of legal knowledge
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Foundation for Effective Leadership

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Ethical issues
Ethics

A systematic study of what the person’s conduct and action ought to be with regard to self, others, and environment Justifications of what is right or good
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Ethical issues
Applied Ethics

Application of normative ethical theory to everyday problems Normative ethical theory for each profession arises from the purpose of the profession

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