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Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) A New ITU-R DTV Terrestrial Broadcasting Standard for China and

d Other Markets

Prof. Jian Song jsong@tsinghua.edu.cn SIEEE, AE of IEEE Trans on Broadcasting


DTV Technology R&D Center, Tsinghua University, China
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Outlines
DTTB standard - DTMB Key Technologies of DTMB System Performance of DTMB Extended Application of DTMB

Various TV Broadcasting Networks

Satellite

Direct TV Terrestrial

Satellite Terminal

Terrestrial Terminal

Live Signal Microwave Optical CATV


Cable Terminal

TV Station

Content

Distribution

Transmission

End user

Requirement on DTMB Services

Service Mode Basic mode: Broadcasting Advanced mode: Two-way asymmetric transmission Fixed (indoor and outdoor) and Mobile (portable and handheld) reception HDTV, SDTV, Audio, & Multimedia services 2006.8.18 Announcement 2007.8.1 Becomes mandatory 2007.12.31 Officially launched in Hong Kong 2008 Massive deployment started 2015 Analog TV shutdown

Mobile Reception

Fixed, outdoor

Handheld/Portable

Fixed, indoor Fixed, outdoor

DTTB Standards & Worldwide Deployment


ATSC/8VSB

HDTV Stationary reception, Outdoor reception with antenna Adopted by several countries HDTV indoor, SDTV mobile Support SFN Adopted by or on trial in 60+ countries HDTV indoor, SDTV/Portable mobile Support SFN Adopted by several countries HD/SD, indoor/Mobile/Portable Support SFN Mandatory in China, used in Hong Kong, Macau, Laos, Cuba, and Cambodia

TS

USA ATSC -T Europe DVB -T ISDB Japan ATSC -T China DTMB FEC Mod TX Noise USA ATSC -T Europe DVB -T Japan ISDB China DTMB
Channel Channel

DVB-T/C-OFDM

A/V Comp.

ISDB/BST+C-OFDM

TV
TS

Tuner

China DTMB/TDS-OFDM

A/V De-comp.

Decoding

Demod

Channel estimation

Terminal Market Forecast


Market Segment
Fixed

Terminal Type
ITV and STB

Market Forecast
470 Million TV sets will be changed in coming 7 years 800K terminals in coming 3 years 10Million DTV laptop computers in coming 5 years 7.5 Million in coming 3 years

Car TV

STB

Computer TV USB dongle


Handheld terminal PMP PDA

TV phone

Cell Phone

60 Million DTV phones by 2012.

DTMB Deployment in Hong Kong


Station
ATV 1 HDTV + 2 SDTV programs within 8MHz TVB 1 HDTV + 2 SDTV programs within 8MHz
Phase I Coverage >50% 2007.12

Source coding
SDTV MPEG-2 Audio Layer I HDTV H.264 AC-3

Phase II >80% 2009.12 Customers: >1.06 Millions Pen. Rate: >46 Phase III >99% 2011

The working mode of multi-carrier modulation, 64QAM constellation mapping, PN945, 0.6 FEC code rate, and interleaving option of 720 is used

Outlines
DTTB standard - DTMB Key Technique of DTMB Performance of DTMB Extended Application of DTMB

Major Challenges and Solutions


Wideband: High throughput, difficult to handle in time domain only. It becomes relatively easy when using OFDM High speed mobility: Fast time-varying, harsh for broadband signal transmission, needs fast channel estimation Large coverage: Long delay, time-domain multi-window joint estimation and frequency domain equalization is required Portable: TDM adopted to save power and provide flexibility

Existing Solutions

Frequency domain processing: DVB-T receiving antenna diversity is needed to support mobile reception, ISDB-1Seg and MediaFLO all use OFDM technology to support portable Time domain processing: ATSC and ATSC M/H Time-Frequency joint processing: DTMB supports HDTV mobile reception, DMMB supports portable devices
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DTMB Transmitter Diagram


x15 +x14 +1 QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM Outer Code Inner Code PN420 (3dB) PN595 (0dB) PN945 (3dB)

System Information Frame body forming

PN

TS

NR coding

Mapp ing

Time interleaver

Frame body processing

SRRC

BCH(762,752)

Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for DTTB Systems


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Scrambler

LDPC(7488,3048) LDPC(7488,4572) LDPC(7488,6096) PN FEC+ Constellation 11 11 11

Time interleaver (52,240) (52,720)

Multi carrier: C=3780 IDFT, Freq. Interleaver Single carrier: C=1, optional dual pilots

M/S/S+Pilot(optinal) 3 3 3 All DTMB modes

TI modes 2 2 2

PN 2 1 2

Modes 132 66 132 330

PN420 PN595 PN945

DTMB System Frame Structure


Signal Frame: consists of GI (guard interval or frame header) and IDFT (frame body) block with the same symbol rate. GI is BPSK modulated
Calendar Day Frame

0 00:00:0 0 am

24 Hour Minute Frame 1 Minute

1439 24: 00: 00 am

0 Super Frame 125 ms

479

Control Frame

Signal Frame 555 .6 us/ 578 .7 03 us/ 625 us Frame Header PN Sequence Frame Body Data Block
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Signal Frame Format of DTMB System


Signal Frame, consisting of frame header and frame body
Frame header
(420 symbol 55.6s) (595 symbol 78.7s) (945 symbol 125s)

Frame body SI and Data, 3780 symbols, 500s


36 SI symbols

3744 data symbols

PN420 Mode with doubled signal power: 225 PN420 sequences are used. LFSR is reset to initial state with index 0 at the beginning of each super frame. pre-amble 82 symbols PN255=1+x+x5+x6+x8 post-amble 83 symbols PN945 Mode with doubled signal power: 200 PN945 sequences are used. LFSR is reset to the initial state with index 0 at the beginning of each super frame. pre-amble 217 symbols PN511 =1+x2+x7+x8+x9 post-amble 217 symbols

PN595 Mode with the same average signal power. The first 595 bits of PN1023= 1+x3+x10 are always used and the initial state of LFSR is 0000000001

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TDS-OFDM in DTMB
Copy
CP GI

C-OFDM

Copy
CP

IDFT Data+Pilots
IDFT Data

IDFT Data+Pilots
COFDM IDFT=Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

C-OFDM Process in Frequency domain Parameter refresh: 1ms; Signal lock: 100ms
TDS-OFDM Symbol PN

IDFT Data

PN

IDFT Data
TDSOFDM

TDS-OFDM Process in Time/Frequency domain Channel estimation: ~0.6ms; Signal lock: 5ms Synchronization gain: >20dB

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Interference Cancellation is NEEDED


Channel Estimation for TDS-OFDM is challenging
- Data interference on PN sequence & PN interference on Data
Transmitted Signal
DATA

PN

DATA

PN

Convolution Received Signal


DATA DATA

PN

PN

PN Signal without interference from data


PN

?
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BCH(762, 752) derived from BCH(1023, 1013) is used as the outer code BCH is used to handle Error floor and rate adaptation Using LDPC with 3 code rates as the inner code
Code Rate 0.4 0.6 0.8 Block Length (bits) 7488 7488 7488 Information Bits 3008 4512 6016

FEC:LDPC+BCH

For example, 4 BCH (762,752) blocks pass LDPC (7493, 3048) encoder, and after first 5 parity check bits punctured, FEC rate 0.4 (7488, 3008) is obtained
TS

TS Group

752bit

Fill 2610

1013bit

BCH(1023,1013) Coding BCH(762,752)

1023bit

Puncture 2610

762bit

7488bit

Modulation

Puncturing first 5 bits

7493bit

LDPC(7493,3048) Coding

3048bit

Assemble 4 762bit into group

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Time Interleaving
Randomize the burst errors
Time-selective channel (in mobility) Impulse interference (from home appliances)

Time Interleaving is done across multiple signal frames Convolutional Interleaver


B/M: 52/240 with delay of 170 Signal Frames B/M: 52/720 with delay of 510 Signal Frames
0 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0

( B 1) M
B4 B- 3 B- 2

1M

2M 3M

3M 2M
1 M

B4 B3 B2 B1

B1 -

( B 1) M -

B- 1

B- 1

Coding memory 7637760 bits

Decoding memory 22913280bits


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DTMB Payload Data Rate


3744 Payload= Ri Rm 56 . Mbps 7 GI + 3780 GI 420/595/945 Rm (spectrum efficiency) Ri (FEC): 0.4=3008/7488, 0.6=4512/7488, 0.8=6016/7488
Frame length of 4200/4375/4725 symbols Code Rate 4QAM-NR 4QAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 0.4 N.A. 5.4/5.2/4.8 10.8/10.4/9.6 N.A. 27.1/26.0/24.1 0.6 N.A. 8.1/7.8/7.2 16.2/15.6/14.4 N.A. 24.4/23.4/21.7 0.8 5.4/5.2/4.8 10.8/10.4/9.6 21.7/20.8/19.3 27.1/26.0/24.1 32.5/31.2/28.9
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6MHz/8MHz Compatibility in DTMB

Both DTMB and DVB-T can be used in either 6MHz or 8MHz systems

Same basic diagram on TX, RX. Bandwidth and payload should be adjusted by a factor of 3/4 Frame structure, synchronization, modulation, channel estimation and FEC are compatible for 6MHz and 8MHz systems Symbol rate: 5.67 vs 7.56Msps Spectrum mask, bandwidth and data rate of the source encoder need to be adjusted by a factor of 3/4
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Difference between 6MHz and 8MHz system of DTMB


Outlines

Chinese DTTB standard - DTMB Key Technique of DTMB Performance of DTMB Extended Application of DTMB

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Measurement Results by SARFT


Test in May 2006 on 64QAM, FEC 0.6, C=3780 This mode is suitable for HDTV service covering large area
Payload (Mb/s) C/N under AWGN (dB) Receiving sensitivity (dBm) Mean and variance of C/N under 15 channel models (dB) 2-path echo amplitude and delay (dB/ s) C/N for dynamic echo with maximal Doppler frequency (dB/Hz) Co-channel Analog/Digital Interference C/I dB Upper/Lower channel Protection ratio C/I -dB Impulse interference duration C/N=3dB ms Carrier to phase noise ratio C/N dB Peak-to-Average Power Ratio @99.9% dB 24.368 15.27 -83.53 18.53/3.47 0/48.5 24.99/70 2.7/34.9 -28.2/-27.8 28 14.8 8.52

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Measurement Results by SARFT (contd)


Test in May 2006 on 4QAM FEC 0.4 mode C=3780 This mode is suitable for fixed and mobile reception of SDTV
Payload (Mb/s) C/N under AWGN (dB) Receiving Sensitivity (dBm) Mean and variance of C/N under 15 channel models (dB) 2-path echo amplitude and delay (dB/ s) C/N for dynamic echo with maximal Doppler frequency (dB/Hz) Co-channel Analog/Digital Interference C/I dB Upper/Lower channel Protection ratio C/I -dB Impulse interference duration C/N=3dB ms Carrier to phase noise ratio C/N dB Peak-to-Average Power Ratio @ 99.9% dB Mobile reception performance (percentage of the testing sites) 5.414 1.93 -97.29 3.81 /3.47 0 /48.5 11.0 /115 /2.1/34.9 28.2/27.8 185 1.7 8.49 >90%

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Field Trial of DTMB vs DVB-T in Beijing


Availability within 5th ring DVB-T 92.5% DMB-T 99.6% Maximal Distance DMB-T 70km DVB-T 40km Same antenna at CCTV tower DTMB 1000W/QPSK/5.4Mbps DVB-T 1000W/QPSK/4.9Mbps

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Performance Comparison between DTMB and DVB-T

Performance more robust


Special TDS-OFDM technology, quick acquisition and robust synchronization

Higher payload data throughput


Increase frequency efficiency by ~10%, synchronization gain higher than 20dB

Better mobile reception performance


Single antenna for mobile HDTV reception, channel estimation much faster

Better coverage
Lower C/N threshold, almost double the coverage range at the same TX power

Flexible broadcasting service


Unique frame address of every 500s signal frame, suitable for bidirectional and multi-service broadcasting

Simple SFN equipment


Synchronization to the absolute time makes SFN system simple and robust

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Complexity of DTMB vs DVB-T


Functional block name Synchronization Channel estimation Channel equalization Interleaving DTMB PN Sequence PN Sequence DVB-T Pilot Pilot Complexity Performance

DTMB simpler Carrier and timing lock than DVB-T time 5ms:100ms DTMB simpler than DVB-T DTMB has better mobile reception performance

Frequency Frequency DTMB same as DTMB comparable for DVB-T multi/single carrier modes domain domain
DVB-T simpler DTMB has better antiTiming/ Timing/ impulsive noise Frequency Frequency than DTMB performance

FEC

LDPC+ BCH

RS+Conv. DVB-T simpler DTMB outperforms by 3dB


than DTMB

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DTMB Demodulator Chips

$2

DTMB DVB-T

$1

00 01 02 03 04 0 5

06 07

08

09

25

01/02/12

GME

Max 10KW

Availability of DTMB BBEF Toshiba RS Transmitter Max 10KW

Max 10KW

Max 10KW

01/02/12

DTMB Terminals

Haier, Changhong, Tongfang, Hisense, Skyworth, Samsung, LG, Toshiba,., more than 150 companies can provide >300 models DTMB receivers.

01/02/12

DTMB test instruments

01/02/12

Outlines

Chinese DTTB standard - DTMB Key Technique of DTMB Performance of DTMB Extended Application of DTMB

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Bidirectional Video Surveillance System using TDS-OFDM


Target: Emergency video surveillance system Main features
Freq VHF/UHF Bandwidth 8 MHz Mobility 130km/h Downlink coverage 70 Km Uplink coverage 5-15 Km Payload 5.4Mbps
Fixed Down link AP

Mobile
Mobile

Portable

Center

AP

AP

AP
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MING-T Project (2007.01~2009.03)

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Powerline Communication Application


Frame Head
Data input

Scramb ler

FEC

Mapping Interleaver

M U X

Frame Body Processing

Combine

Baseband Processing

Power Line

System Information

Digital Signal Processor

Synchronizer

Power Line

ADC

Digital Down-convertor

SRRC filter

Channel Estimator and Equalizer

TS MPEG Stream

De-scrambler

LDPC decoder

De-mapping

De-interleaver

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Powerline Communication Application (contd)


The highest payload data throughput is 108Mbps within 20MHz by using 256-QAM and LDPC rate of 0.8

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Oversea Promotion of DTMB

DTMB vs DVB-T, fixing reception: 41(better):29(draw):13(worse)

DTMB vs DVB-T vs ISDB-T: 4 leading (some are joint), 1 second

DTMB vs DVB-T vs ISDB-T vs ATSC: overall performance the best

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System D-DTMB of ITU-R

Approved by ITU-R on Dec. 6, 2011 http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.1306-6-201112-

http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.1368-9-201112-

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References
1. J. Song, et al., Technical Review on Chinese Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Standard and Measurements on Some Working Modes, IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, Vol.53, No. 1, 2007, pp.1-7. Y. Wu, et al., Overview of Digital Television Development, Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Global Digital Television: Technology and Emerging Services, Jan., 2006. pp. 8-21. M. S. Richer, et al., The ATSC Digital Television System, ibid, pp. 37-43. U. Ladebusch et al., Terrestrial DVB (DVB-T): A Broadcast Technology for Stationary Portable and Mobile Use, ibid, pp. 183-194. M. Takada et al., Transmission Systems for ISDB-T, ibid, pp. 251-256. Z, Niu et al., A New Paradigm for Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting Based on Integrated Communication and Broadcast Networks, Communications Magazine, IEEE Vol. 46, No. 7, 2008, pp.126 -132. MING-T Website: http://ming-t.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/

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