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There are different types of hazard:

Caused by climate processes, these include droughts, floods, tropical cyclones/storms

Caused by land processes, these include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides.

- When a hazard actually seriously affects humans

- The likelihood that humans will be seriously affected by a hazard

-How susceptible a population is to the damage caused by a hazard

The risk of a disaster increases as the frequency or severity of hazards increases, people s vulnerability increases and people s capacity to cope (ability to cope with the consequences) is decreased.

Hydro meteorological hazards are becoming more frequent

Another reason why it may seem that the number of disasters has increased is because of greater media coverage more disasters are reported than in the past, so it seems as if more are actually happening

Its thought that the increase in hydro meteorological hazards is due to the increasing effects of global warming which is thought to be largely due to human activity

The number of geophysical hazards hasn t changed much



Rapid population growth and urbanisation this increases the number of people who are vulnerable to hazards, especially in poor countries

Global warming it s thought to be increasing the number of hazards, e.g. Floods and severe storms, which increases the number of disasters El Nino events (oceanic current and temperature fluctuations) these change global weather in an unpredictable way, which makes hydro meteorological hazards more unpredictable

Increasing world poverty poor people are more vulnerable to hazards

Exploitation of resources e.g. Deforestation and los of wetlands can lead to an increased risk of flooding and landslides

Deaths from disasters have decreased due to improvements in risk management strategies:
prediction - improved technology means some hazards can be predicted e.g. The path of tropical cyclones can be predicted to some extent. Advance warning means people can be evacuated and property secured prevention - natural hazards can t be stopped, but they can be prevented from becoming disasters, e.g. By using sand bags to protect against the effects of flooding preparedness - educating people on what to do in case of a disaster helps to reduce the number of deaths, e.g. Japan has a disaster preparedness day each year when practice earthquake evacuation drills are carried out

Actual financial cost is the amount of money lost - this greatest in richer countries Relative financial cost is the amount of money lost relative to how much the people have to start with this is greatest in poorer countries. Less actual money is lost, but the effects of the loss are greater