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Amalgam : It is an alloy, which has mercury as one of its component . Dental amalgam :
Dental amalgam has been used in operative dentistry for not less than 170 years.
It is a special types of powdered alloys (silver, tin, copper and ( may or may not zinc containing ) mixed with liquid mercury .
Almost 80% of single tooth preparations are filled with amalgam. Most posterior teeth are restored with amalgam than any other material. Mercury is used to liquefy and react with dental amalgam alloy constituents
² Producing an alloy of plastic consistency that remain workable at room and body temperature for a time required for condensation and carving. ² Amalgamation is a process in which mercury is alloyed with other metals.
Advantages and disadvantages
Superior adaptation to cavity walls:
² Improves with aging ² Inhibits microleakage
Decrease postoperative hypersensitivity Decrease cervicular corrosion Decrease recurrent caries
High compressive strength
Fairly good form stability:
² Maintain surface polish ² Maintain occlusal anatomy ² Maintain inter-proximal contact due to:
Insolubility High wear resistance Reasonable low creep value of modern high copper alloys.
Low coefficient of thermal expansion:
²Twice as that of the tooth. ²Decrease marginal percolation
Ease of manipulation:
² Quick mastery of its technique ² Easy for general practitioner
Relative low cost because of the relative short time required for construction of the restoration Excellent wear resistance Favorable long- term clinical results.
Good sealing and adapting to cavity walls and margins.
Low tensile and shear strength:
² About 25%its compressive strength ² Makes the restoration susceptible to:
Deterioration marginal ditching Isthmus fract
² Time dependent deformation ² May result in form instability in term of:
Marginal breakdown Flattening of contact Saucering of occlusal anatomy Formation of gingival overhangs
High thermal conductivity
² May cause pulp irritation unless adequately protected
Objectionable metallic color
² Complicated by tarnish and corrosion Limits its use to inconspicuous area of the mouth. e.g. anterior teeth .
Lack of adhesion to tooth structure:
² Dictate the use of mechanical means of retention ² Weaken the tooth structure
Potential health hazards
² Duo to the presence of mercury
Galvanic effect may occur if another metallic restoration is existing with different electrode potential
²Cause patient discomfort ²Leave metallic taste in the mouth ²Accelerate the corrosive breakdown of the electro negative metal.
Indications and contraindications
Indications Amalgam should be considered for:
² class I, II. ² the distal surface of the cuspids. ² class V in posterior teeth.
Material selection in such case will depend on
The extent of the lesion.
Amalgam is preferable in the next situations: ² Small and medium sized class I and II cavities ² Cavities with four walls and floor to decrease the tensile load ² Under mined cusps will require cusp capping ² In extensive lesions cast gold will serve better.
² Caries incidence amalgam may be favored if:
² Repair or remake is likely to include extensions for original cavities. ² Patient with moderate to high caries incidence; as it is
Less costly Having good sealing ability
²Amalgam restorations cost far less than cast gold per se. ²If the restoration has to be replaced repeatedly this advantage becomes questionable. ²Core-build under full crown restorations.
1-Amalgam will be objectionable for ² Esthetic conscious patient. ² In conspicuous areas of the tooth ² The posterior composite may be favored. 2- In cases of undermined cusps, where the tooth subjected to high load of tensile strength , where cast gold serve better .
Composition and Classification
Composition Amalgam alloys are composed of different concentrations of:
² ² ² ² ² Silver Tin Copper Zinc (may or may not containing ) Mercury
Functions of each ingredient metal in dental amalgam: Silver-Ag Advantages:
² ² ² ² ² ² Increases strength. Increase setting expansion. Decrease flow of amalgam. Make the amalgam set quickly. Improve the color of amalgam. The major constitute of the alloy silver amalgam ( about 73% )
² Decreases expansion. ² Helps in amalgamation.
² Decreases strength. ² Setting will be slow. ² Increases flow.
² Increases strength and hardness. ² Decrease flow. ² Setting will be quick.
² Increases expansion. ² Can be tarnished.
² Acts as a scavenger ² Setting will be quick ² Helps in workability and cleanliness of amalgam.
² Increases expansion in presence of water e,g . saliva delayed expansion. ² Diminishes the edge strength
² Gives plasticity and softening to amalgam ² Binds the particles of the alloy together. ² Essential for setting reaction and hardening.
² Decrease strength and tend to fracture of the filling. ² High creep causing marginal failure and leakage. ² Susceptibility to corrosion and discoloration.
amalgam can be classified in different ways: 1-According to the number of alloyed metals. 2-According to the shape of the powdered particles. 3-According to the size of the powdered particles.
4-According to the zinc content of the powder. 5-According to the form supplied of the powder. 6-According to the copper content of the powder. 6-According to the addition of noble
1-According to the number of alloyed metals: Binary alloy (silver tin). Ternary alloy (silver, tin, copper). Quaternary alloy (silver, tin, copper, and zinc)
2-According to the shape of the powdered particles: A-Lath cut.
² Irregular shaped powder particles ranging from spindles to shavings.
Smooth surface spheres
-Advantages of spherical:
Require less mercury. Develop more early strength. Require less
less condensation force.
More difficult to obtain inter-proximal contact and contours in class II cavity.
Have shorter working time.
spheroid ² Formulated by mixing the lath cut and spherical particles in order to: Increase the packing efficiency of the alloy Reduce the amount of mercury required to produce a workable mix.
3-According to the particle diameter, it is the least used classification: Very fine particle size alloy. Fine particle size alloy. Medium particle size alloy. Coarse grained particle size alloy.
Very fine particle size alloy has the following advantages:
² Easily carved. ² Produce excellent surface finish.
They have the following disadvantages:
² Require more mercury. ² Lower early compressive strength. ² High rate of marginal breakdown.
Coarse grained particle size alloy has the following advantages: ² Require less mercury. ² Produce amalgam with higher early strength. It has the following disadvantages: ² Difficult to carve. Fine and medium particle size alloys appear the best compromise in this respect.
4-According to the zinc content of the alloy: Zinc containing amalgam. Zinc free amalgam.
5-According to the form supplied of the powder: Powder. Tablets of condensed powder particles. Capsules together with gauged amount of mercury separated by a diaphragm.
Advantages of the capsules are: More accurate powder/mercury ratio. Less danger of mercury spillage dung handling. More convenient to use.
6-According to the addition of noble metals:
² When the alloy contain palladium,gold, or platinum are alloyed to the powder. ² Palladium is the most effective metal added to the modern alloy.
7-According to the copper content of the alloy: This classification is one of the most commonly used. Low copper alloys (Cu < 4%). High copper alloys (Cu > 4%). Admixed Unicompositional
Advantages of high copper alloys: Improved mechanical properties. Higher early strength. Better marginal integrity. Better resistance to tarnish and corrosion.
Conventional amalgam alloys The conventional amalgam alloys contain: Silver ( Ag 67-74%). Tin (Sn 25-28%). Copper (Cu 0-6%). Zinc (Zn 0-1%). The basic structure is:
² The intermetallic compound AgSn ( ) ² Cu6 Sn5 ( ) when the copper content is more than 4%.
The amalgam exhibits optimum controllable and desirable characteristics including reactions and dimensional changes at the composition of gamma phase. Therefore amalgam alloys should contain as much of this phase as possible. Ag3Sn+Hg Ag2Hg3+Sn7Hg8+Ag3Sn+Hg+voids.
High copper amalgam alloys There are two types of high copper amalgam alloy: Admixed high copper amalgam alloy.
² Total copper 9-20%.
Unicomposional high copper amalgam alloy.
² Total copper 13-30%.
The great increase in strength is due to
² Reinforcement by the very strong Ag3Cu. ² Elimination of weak and corrodible gamma 2 phase.
Setting reaction of admixed amalgam:
Ag3Sn+Hg Ag2Hg3+Sn7Hg8+Ag3Sn+Hg+voids. Sn7Hg8+Ag3Cu ² 2 ² the CuSn Cu6Sn5 Ag2Hg3+Cu6Sn5+Cu3Sn
² Some traces of
Unicomposional high copper amalgam alloy Each particle has the same composition including:
² B AgSn ² The gamma Ag3Sn5 ² the CuSn Cu6Sn5
² Some traces of
Total copper content 13-30%.
It has higher strength. High corrosion resistance. Gamma 2 phase is eliminated unless if: ² There is no enough Cu to consume all Sn. ² There is excess mercury react with the Sn.
Setting reaction: Ag2CuSn+Hg Ag2Hg3+Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn+ 1 unreacted particles +Hg+voids.
Cavity preparations: As the amalgam is a brittle material with low tensile and shear bond strength, the cavity of such restoration should have: Conservative outline. Adequate resistance and retention forms. Adequate bulk of the material.
The amalgam cavities should have specific features: Cavo-surface angle of 90 degree
² Reverse curve in class II cavity.
Cavity walls parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the occlusal forces. A definite gingival seat 1.5 mm deep from the surface. Gingival seat 0.2 mm in dentin in compound cavities.
Increased depth of the isthmus area. The isthmus width is one quarter the bucco-lingual distance between the cusp tips. If the cusp undermined:
-Must be reduced to a minimum of 2 mm. ² Cusp capping with amalgam. Every portion of the compound cavities should be provided with self retention. Auxiliary portions should not depend on principle portion for retention.
Factors deciding the quality of amalgam restoration
Factors under the control of the manufacture: Composition of the alloy. Heat treatment of the alloy. Particle size and shape. Surface treatment of the particles. Form of the alloy supply.
Factors under the control of the dentist: Selection of the alloy and mercury. Alloy/mercury ratio. Trituration procedure. Condensation technique. Carving. Finishing and polishing of the restoration
Manipulation of amalgam Manipulation is a multi-variable set of procedures which should be adequately controlled and standardized in order to obtain consistently restorations of clinically successful and durable performance.
The technique of amalgam manipulation consists of: Selection of alloy and mercury. Proportioning. Trituration. Condensation. Carving. Finishing and polishing.
I.Selection of the alloy and mercury Spherical alloys: Produce very soft amalgam. Requires only light condensation. Recommended to restore pulp capped teeth. Adapt around pins in pin retained restorations.
Spherical alloys: Can not be well contoured. Establishing of good contact is too difficult. Not recommended for extensive restorations involving the angles.
High copper alloys: Produce amalgam of high strength. High corrosion resistance. Lower creep value. Better suit extensive restorations. Restorations involving margins and centric holding areas. Used in patient with bad oral hygiene. Better handling properties. Better carvability characteristics.
Zinc containing amalgam: Produce amalgam more resistant to oxidation. Good plasticity and workability. Moisture contamination delayed expansion.
² 400 um. ² The most deleterious and detrimental effect on the amalgam mass. ² Take place within 24-72 hours.
Zinc free amalgam: Produce amalgam with lower plasticity,workability and more susceptible to oxidation. Indicated when moisture controlled is clinically impossible.
² Subgingival restorations. Improved manufacture procedures have eliminated zinc from the high copper alloys.
Small traces of zinc to high copper alloy amalgam improve its clinical performance.
Amalgam capsules: More convenient. Eliminate the chance of mercury spills. Eliminate exposure to mercury vapor during proportioning. More reliable alloy/mercury ratio.
Selection of mercury: it must be:
² Pure. ² Highly distilled. ² Free from arsenic content.
II.Proportioning of alloy and mercury The amount of alloy and mercury to be used depends on: The amount require to over fill the cavity. The amount which can be condensed within 3-5 minutes. Large cavities require more than one mix.
Dispensing of alloy:
The amount of alloy should be gauged by weight. Volume measuring varies with the variation in size and form of the alloy particle. Accurate adjustment of alloy/mercury ratio is critical due to the high effect of mercury on the physical properties of the amalgam. The addition of mercury after trituration is contraindicated.
Alloy/mercury ratio: An amount of mercury require to wet every alloy particles is required. To achieve smooth plastic amalgam mixes, it was necessary to use excess mercury than required in the final restoration. The excess mercury is then reduced by squeezing the mixed amalgam in a small piece of gauze.
Eames technique: It is termed also minimal or low mercury technique. It is used to reduce the content of mercury in the original alloy. The alloy/mercury ratio is 1:1 or 5:5 by weight. 5:5 by weight indicates 50%wt.
High mercury technique (dryness tech.): It is termed also increasing dryness technique. Alloy/mercury ratio is 5:6 by weight. The mercury is 56% wt. This ratio depends on:
² Type of amalgam alloy.
High copper alloys requires around 45%wt. Mercury.
² The particle size and shape.
Spherical alloys require around 40%wt. Mercury. Lath cut conventional alloys require about 5054%wt. Mercury.
² The previous heat treatment.
Dispensing of mercury: Volume dispensers are accurate for measuring liquid mercury. It should be held in upright position. Tilting may cause more than 5%wt. inaccuracy. Preweighted capsules are more accurate.
² Dose not allow for individual variations in amounts or ratio. ² Higher cost.
In case of less mercury: A non-coherent friable mix will result. Difficult condensation. Very week and corrodible final restoration.
In case of excess mercury: Marked reduction in strength. Increased expansion. Decreased hardness. Increased flow and creep as a result of increased 2 phase. Decrease the bond strength between the non consumed particles and the different phases.
Proportioning recommendations by manufactures should be adhered to. It must be remembered that, the higher the mercury/alloy ratio, the higher the mercury content of the final restoration regardless of every effort to eliminate it during and prior to condensation.
III.Trituration This refers to the process of mixing together of Hg and gamma particles to produce a coherent plastic and homogenous mass of condensable amalgam.
The objectives of trituration are: To coat each particle with mercury. To begin the reaction that will produce a solid mass. Rub the film of oxides off the surface of alloy particles to expose its clean surface to mercury. Dissolves both Ag and Sn.
Ag reacts with mercury producing AgHg or gamma-1 phase. Sn reacts with Hg in case of conventional alloys producing Sn8Hg7 or gamma-2 phase. In case of high copper alloys Sn reacts with Cu forming Cu3Sn or eta phase, and Cu6Sn5 or epsilon phase.
The process of dissolution and phases production continues during trituration and condensation and result in: Decrease in size of non-consumed gamma particles. Production of strong and non-corrodible gamma1 phase which: ² Bond the unconsumed particles with other phases. ² It is the only new phase produced in high copper amalgam
Precipitation of phases in high copper alloys which increase the hardness, strength and rigidity of amalgam. Production of weak corrodible gamma2 phase in conventional alloys. Progressive consumption of mercury with corresponding decrease in plasticity.
Variables of mixing: The amount of trituration is a function of:
² Time (minutes). ² Speed (rpm). ² Pressure (F/A) and must be standardized.
Under triturated amalgam:
² Some alloy particles will remain covered with oxides particles and unbonded to the structure. ² Excess remaining Hg. ² Dull and too soft mix. ² Weak and corrodible amalgam. ² Extensive setting expansion. ² Excessive flow and creep.
Over triturated amalgam:
² Less plastic yet homogeneous and coherent mix. ² Fast setting.
Duo to rapid consumption of Hg and crystallization of deferent phases.
² Higher early strength. ² Less setting expansion or rather insignificant setting contraction. ² Smoother surface.
Methods of trituration: Manual trituration
² Involves use of mortar and pestle.
Clean and moderately rough mortar. Pestle of suitable size.
² Steady constant force. ² Standard time and rate of mixing. ² Amalgam should not be touched with bar hands.
Moisture sensitivity. Mercury toxicity.
² Properly mixed amalgam will appear bright, homogeneous, coherent and climbing on the walls.
² It insures optimum results if done according to manufacture instructions.
² It uses preweighted amalgam capsules to be mixed for predetermined period.
² It is used for accurate proportioning and trituration for alloy and mercury.
Mulling: Continuation for manual trituration. Can be used with mechanical trituration. It improves the homogeneity of the mix. The mix is enveloped in a dry piece of rubber dam and rubbed between the index finger and the thumb. It is done for 2-5 seconds. The mass regain its plasticity due to redistribution of the mercury content.
IV.Condensation It refers to the process of forcible packing of the fresh amalgam mix into the details of cavity preparations with eliminations of excess mercury and any porosity to increase the density and optimize the strength and adaptation of the clinical restoration.
Objectives of condensation:
Squeeze unreacted Hg out. Bring Hg on top has a binding effect. Increase final strength of the restoration. Decrease number and size of voids. Starts solid state reaction by getting phases closer. It is the step where the final composition of the amalgam is determined.
The amalgam should be condensed between four walls and floor. In case of missing wall, it should be substituted with matrix. The matrix should be:
± ± ± ± ± Thin, rigid, and well contoured Adapted to margins Wedged to compensate for the thickness of the matrix Stabilized to prevent movement during condensation Used only one and discarded
Wooden wedges is placed from either the buccal or lingual aspects. Wedges are inserted from the side with the widest embrasure. The wedge should be tightly inserted to enable development of tight contact. Wedges are available in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Delay in condensation: Only fresh mix should be condensed. Mixes older than 3-4 minutes should be discarded. In large cavities more than one fresh mix is used. Condensation should start immediately after trituration.
Delay in condensation: Partially set amalgam will be ± Dry, weak, and non coherent ± Porous,poorly adapted, and corrodible. Using old mixes should be avoided as it ± Create cracks in the matrix leading to Fracture, corrosion, and leakage. ± Impossible to squeeze residual mercury. ± Decreased plasticity prevents adaptation.
Methods of condensation:
± Using hand condenser. ± The most widely used method.
± Using either vibrator or impact type mechanical device. ± With impact type condenser, care should be taken not to break the enamel margins.
Ultrasonic condensers: ± Tend to produce local heating
Lead to mercury vapor release Modification in the setting reaction
± Not recommended.
Amalgam is condensed in small increments for: ± Effective elimination of mercury ± Better adaptation and density. it is started in deep and retentive areas. In compound cavities, it is started in the auxiliary portion. Keep the top of the last condensed increment rich in mercury to effect wetting and cohesion with subsequent increment.
Fill the cavity to slight excess. Use a smaller condenser while filling the cavity. A larger condenser is used for over packing. The initial condenser should be small enough to condense into the line angles. The initial condenser should be large enough not to poke holes in the amalgam mass. Condensation should be completed within 2.5-3.5 minutes. Condense each portion extrude from the carrier before placing the next increment.
Proper condensation will result in: Coherent amalgam. No residual mercury or voids. Well adapted amalgam to the cavity walls. Restoration free of marginal overhangs.
Proper condensation requires: Use of fresh mix. Use of suitable size condenser with adaptable form. Avoid contamination either by
± Moisture ± Old mixes.
Amalgam is condensed in small increments. Using appropriate force during condensation. The cavity is filled to a slight excess.
Two deferent condensation techniques are known:
Increased dryness technique
Eames technique: Alloy to mercury ratio is 1:1. The final restoration will never contain more than 50%wt.mercury. The amalgam will set faster The set amalgam exhibits slight insignificant contraction. This technique require faster operator, and the use of small condensers.
Slower setting time alloy may be helpful foe some operators. Each amalgam increment may be squeezed before insertion into the cavity. Still some mercury can be removed from the final restoration.
Increased dryness technique: It utilizes mercury rich increments for better adaptation. This is followed by increasingly dry increments to a last overfilling of very dry amalgam. The dryer increment blot the excess mercury in the previously mercury rich increment.
Non homogeneous amalgam mass may result. Each amalgam increment should be squeezed before insertion into the cavity. Excess mercury in the final restoration may result.
Eames technique versus increased dryness technique: Selection of the proposed technique is based on manufacture instruction, which is based on:
± Metallurgical condition. ± Pretreatment ,and powder particle specification.
The operator experience is a deciding factor in choosing between the two technique.
Large cavities require more than one mix may indicate the use of increased dryness technique. Restorations with multiple retentive means (pin, grooves,etc.) indicates the use of increased dryness technique. The choice between the two techniques must take place during the step of proportioning of the alloy and mercury.
Precarve burnishing This is rubbing of the newly condensed amalgam with a metal instrument having a broad surface contact. The excess amalgam is precarve burnished to the surface with a large ball burnisher. This procedure: ± Eliminate the mercury rich amalgam on the surface. ± Improves the adaptation. ± Increased the density of the amalgam. ± Help to condition the surface of amalgam making it easier to carving.
It is the anatomical sculpturing of the amalgam material. Objectives of carving is to produce:
± functional, non-interfering occlusal anatomy. ± Proper physiological contour. ± Normal physiological contact areas. ± Compatible embrasures. ± Restorations with no under- or overhangs.
Timing of carving: The amalgam should has a definite resistance to the carving instrument. The initial setting time before the carving begins depends on the the rate of the setting of the alloy used. Timing of carving: Fast setting alloy can be carved immediately after condensation. Slow setting alloys may require a waiting period of 1-3 minutes after condensation. Early carving :
± will not enable the operator to produce a proper anatomy. ± The material will be pushed ahead of the carving instrument.
Direction of carving: Sharp carving instrument should be used. The instrument should rest partially on the tooth and partially on the amalgam. The preferred direction is parallel to the cavo-surface margins. Any direction of carving can be used except from the tooth to the restoration because:
± It leads to sub margins and ditch formation.
Carving tools: Using a sharp carver is preferable to cut rather than to burnish the surface. A carving explorer is used to:
± Reproduce the occlusal embrasure ± Trim off the excess amalgam at the marginal ridges. ± It is moved from the buccal and lingual cavosurface angle to the center of the ridge.
Discoid-cleoid and Hollenback carvers is used to
± reproduce the occlusal anatomy. ± It is moved from the CSA to the center or ± Parallel to cusp inclines while carving parallel to the cavity outline.
It is done after the carving has been completed. It is done to smoothen the surface. It is done by suitable small sized round burnisher. Light pressure is done during this procedure. The surface acquires a homogeneous stain or velveteen appearance.
Checking of occlusion
The interproximal contacts are checked for tightness. The margins are checked for overhangs.
± A bite-wing radiograph is taken. The occlusion is checked for premature contact. ± using pressure sensitive articulating paper.
The patient is then instructed to:
± Not to use this side for 24hours.
To avoid cracking or fracturing of the restoration.
± Regular home care. ± Report back in a few days for finishing and polishing.
VI. Finishing and polishing Finishing ensures elimination of marginal overhangs. Provides smooth surface. Polishing provides a lustrous layer over the entire surface. The amalgam should not be polished before 24 hours after condensation to avoid:
± Disturbance in crystallization ± Activation of the mercury to the surface.
Finishing is done using finishing burs with suitable size and form. The burs are preferably rotated from the tooth to the restoration to establish 180 degree angle.
The better the finishing the smoother the surface and the less critical the polishing. Polishing is done using a paste of fine pumice powder and water on a black brittle brush. Then, a paste of tin oxide and water is applied on a rubber cup. The restoration will appear bright shine of a stain glass.
Care should be taken to avoid heat generation. Heat generation causes mercury activation to the surface. Low speed, minimum pressure, and wet field is essential. Finishing and polishing encourages home care by the patient to keep the restoration shiny.
Proper finishing and polishing of amalgam restorations result in: Significantly increase in its corrosion resistance. Decrease in bacterial plaque retention. Minimize the gingival irritation. Improves its stress response by:
± Elimination of surface discontinuities which act as stress concentrators.
Amalgam bond 4-META containing bonding systems are used to: ± Bond amalgam to tooth structure. ± Bond amalgam to other metal substrates. There is evidence of decreased leakage in bonded amalgam. Dentists reported that, bonded amalgam decreases post operative tooth sensitivity. Clinical studies show no significant difference between bonded and un-bonded amalgam in post operative sensitivity.
Amalgam bonding strengthen the tooth structure. it should not be used as the sole mean of retention. it should be used when an improved initial seal is needed:
± Direct pulp capping ± Indirect pulp capping.
Side effects of mercury
Allergy Hypersensitivity Systemic toxic effects.
The following precautions should be taken: The clinic should be well ventilated. Proper storage of mercury in a container with tight lid. While using capsules, lids of the capsules should be tight fitted and no spilling should occur. If by chance mercury is spilled on the floor, it should be wiped clean immediately.
If mercury comes in contacts with skin, one must wash with soap and water immediately. Proper waste disposal methods undertaken. Use of eye protection, disposable face masks, and gloves. Periodic monitoring of actual exposure levels in blood and urine.
Non mercury containing amalgam
It is amalgam like restorative developed in the early 1990s.it is made by mixing an alloy of silver and tin with liquid of gallium, indium, and palladium. It is handled and placed in the same way as amalgam. Its properties and corrosion is severely affected by moisture.
The cavity preparation is sealed with an adhesive prior to condensation. It has adequate strength and creep. Clinical studies have shown poor long term performance as a result of corrosion and expansion.
Gallium alloy: ± The current composition of gallium alloy comes as a powder and contain: Silver 50%wt. Tin 25.7%wt. Copper 15%wt. Palladium 9%wt. Traces 0.3%wt. Traces 0.5%wt.
± It is also available as a liquid containing; Gallium 65%wt. Indium 18.95%wt. Tin 16%wt.
Structure of gallium amalgam: The structure of gallium amalgam has been interpreted in terms of a reaction of CuGa2 and PdGa5, surrounding the unreacted alloy particles, which are held together by a matrix of Ag9In4 in which island of Ag9Ga3 and beta tin can be found
Clinical behavior of gallium alloy: Changes in marginal integrity, surface texture, luster, and color were measured clinically over a period of up to 2 years. Significant change in luster and surface roughness occur within 4 months. Apparent corrosion behavior.
Finally, dental amalgam was and remains the4 best restorative material for filling teeth when esthetics is of secondary importance.
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