Pharisees Sadducees Zealots Essenes Messianic groups

but a number of different responses to the Romans. ³Palestine´ after the Roman name for the Philistines. .` ` ` ` Roman territory since 63BC (Pompey). when Jesus was born. Controlled by Roman puppet. Taken over by a Roman governor (Pontius Pilate) by the time Jesus was an adult Roman rule unwelcome by all. Herod the Great.

They rejected the importance of Jerusalem and were reviled by the Jews. Israelites were scattered.` When the Northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed in 721BCE. products of Jerusalem. and foreigners allowed to settle in the north. They married with those who were left. ` ` . Accepted the Torah but rejected the Prophets and Writings.

Advocated rebellion against Rome. to establish a Jewish kingdom to live according to God¶s law.` ` ` Revolutionary political and religious movement. Luke 6:15. Recall: Jesus executed on a political charge of King/Messiah. ` . Simon ³the Zealot´ a follower of Jesus.

were his main opponents.´ Mark 14:53.` Accommodated with Roman rule to maintain social position. Accepted only the first five books of bible (Torah/Law) Gospel stories of the trial and execution of Jesus show that the ³chief priests and elders. Did not believe in the resurrection of the dead. ` ` ` . Opposed the Pharisees who were open to new creative moves within Judaism.

Hostility of the Gospels reflects situation after the destruction of the temple (70CE). creative. spiritual. Established synagogues (at least 10 men) ` ` ` ` . Believed in the resurrection of the dead.` Wanted to live by Jewish Law and protected the faith by fencing it away (613 mitzvah) from Roman corruption. Innovative. Neither compromised with Rome nor revolted. idealistic. Wanted to live holy and pure lives.

` Socially & physically removed from other Jews. and observance of ` ` ` Believed the Temple under the Sadducees was corrupt. Centre at Qumran. similar to John the Baptist. close to the Dead Sea. the true Israel ` . home of Dead Sea Scrolls Insisted on ritual purity (washing) the Law. Awaited a Davidic (kingly) and Priestly Messiah. Saw themselves as the authentic Jews.

God¶s kingdom. Jesus announces God¶s closeness to the poor and those marginalized by the Law.´ Mark 1:15 ` ` ` ` . Called their fellow Jews to a renewed life of faith in readiness to welcome Messiah. Judgment as a blessing for the righteous and a punishment for the wicked. repent and believe in the good news. and the Kingdom of God has come near.` Announced the closeness of God¶s reign. ³The time is fulfilled. An apocalyptic crisis imminent requiring a critical choice.

´ who isolated themselves from Romans and less observant Jews. Pharisees: Lay group mainly. Simon the Zealot among the Twelve disciples of Jesus.` ` ` ` ` Sadducees: Priestly and aristocratic movement. Creative movement. . permitted by the Romans to control religious issues. Awaited Messiah-King and Priest. Messianic groups: God¶s reign or kingdom imminent so need to repent. change one¶s ways. Zealots: Advocates of armed rebellion. ³separated ones. influential in the Temple. Essenes: Social and religious isolation. Leading group of the Sanhedrin. a council of chief priests and elders. Qumran and Dead Sea.

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