Aquatic Gas Exchange
‡ Advantage: ‡ Keeping surface moist is no problem ‡ Disadvantage: ‡ O2 concentrations in water are low,
especially in warmer and saltier environments

Terrestrial Gas Exchange ‡ Advantages: ‡ O2 diffuses faster in air ‡ Air contains much more O2 than water ‡ Disadvantage: ‡ Surfaces must be internal to avoid loss of water due to evaporation .

Ventilation ‡ Ventilation increases the amount of O2 taken in ± stagnant water is no good ± Crayfish wave their appendages to create currents ± brings fresh water to gills ± Fish force water across their gills  Blood also runs countercurrent to the water ‡ Taking in and forcing out O2 from lungs .

Protists & Less Complex Animals ‡ Less complex organisms do not need complex organ systems ‡ Gas exchange takes place due to diffusion .

 Open circulatory system does not transport O2 and CO2 .Insects ‡ Have a series of openings along their sides called spiracles. ‡ Tubes called trachea lead from spiracles to all of the body tissues.


over gill filaments and out through slits in the sides of the pharynx. ‡ They breathe by pumping water through the mouth.Fish ‡ Most fish breathe with gills ± feathery filaments that contain capillaries and a large surface area for gas exchange. ‡ Double Pump System: by decreasing pressure in mouth. by increasing pressure in mouth. water is forced out through the opercula . water is forced in.

gas exchange can happen adequately .Fish Because the gills are so vascular and have a large surface area.

Fish Countercurrent blood flow increases the efficiency of obtaining O2 from water .

.Human Respiration ‡ Works together with the circulatory system. blood. ‡ If respiratory system and/or circulatory system fails. release CO2 as a waste product. and cells. ‡ Accumulation of excess CO2 is toxic to cells and must be removed. ‡ Cells need O2 for work. ‡ Exchange of gases between atmosphere. death will occur.

Respiratory System Circulatory system ‡ Intakes oxygen ‡ Transports gases in blood between ‡ Releases carbon lungs and cells dioxide waste .

Respiratory Structures & Organs .

and filter air as it comes into the system. . moisten. ‡ Pharynx (throat) : conducts food and air.Respiratory Structures & Organs ‡ Nose : made of cartilage and bone and is designed to warm. exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure.

made of cartilage. contains vocal cords nasal cavity pharynx larynx ‡ Epiglottis : flap of tissue that covers trachea. ensures food travels down the esophagus .Respiratory Structures & Organs ‡ Larynx (voice box) : connects the pharynx and trachea.

Respiratory Structures & Organs ‡ Trachea : tubular passage way for air. C-shaped cartilage rings. have cartilage plates. carries air to the lungs. divides at end. lining is ciliated & secretes mucus larynx trachea bronchi bronchiol es . ‡ Bronchi : pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs.

‡ Autonomic nervous system regulates diameter of bronchioles. possess smooth muscle. bronchiole smooth muscle . ‡ Sympathetic division dilates bronchioles ‡ Parasympathetic division constricts bronchioles.Respiratory Structures & Organs ‡ Bronchioles ± tiny tubes lacking cartilage and cilia.

covered with surfactant that keep them from collapsing.Respiratory Structures & Organs Alveoli : cup shaped structures at the end of the bronchioles. . are in direct contact with capillaries (gas exchange). that resemble bunches of grapes.

cone-shaped organs that are surrounded by a pleural membrane.Lungs : paired. made of elastic tissue. and divided into lobes .

which DECREASES the PRESSURE inside lungs. so air moves in. ‡ During inspiration ± diaphragm pulls down and lungs expand. ‡ Lung pressure is lower than outside pressure. it INCREASES the VOLUME. Why?? ‡ Gases move from an area of high pressure to low pressure. .Mechanics of Breathing Inhaling (active process) ± Air moves in. ‡ When lungs expand.


Mechanics of Breathing Exhaling (passive process) ± breathing out ‡ Diaphragm and muscles relax ‡ Volume in lungs and chest cavity decreases. so now pressure inside increases ‡ Air moves out because pressure inside is HIGHER than OUTSIDE atmosphere .

Respiration ‡ What is respiration? ‡ External respiration ± exchange of O2 and CO2 between respiratory surfaces and the blood (breathing) ‡ Internal respiration ± exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and cells ‡ Cellular respiration ± process by which cells use O2 to produce ATP .

External Respiration ‡ Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood ‡ Partial pressure of O2 higher in alveoli than blood so O2 diffuses into blood ‡ Partial pressure of CO2 higher in blood than alveoli. so CO2 moves into alveoli in opposite direction and gets exhaled out .

Internal Respiration ‡ Exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and ‡ ‡ tissues Pressure of O2 higher in blood than tissues so O2 gets release into tissues. Pressure of CO2 higher in tissue than in blood so CO2 diffused in opposite direction into blood. CO2 Is a waste product O2 Is used in cellular respiration ‡ ‡ .


Gas Transport in Blood ‡ Carbon dioxide ‡ 70% as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) dissolved in plasma ‡ 23% bound to hemoglobin ‡ 7% as CO2 dissolved in plasma ‡ Oxygen ‡ 99% bound to hemoglobin ‡ 1% as O2 dissolved in plasma ‡ Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs because CO binds to hemoglobin more readily than O2 .

Respiratory System Disorders ‡ Asthma ± muscles of bronchioles constrict. drastically reducing ventilation. ‡ Emphysema ± destruction of alveoli. ‡ Lung cancer ± 90% of lung cancer victims have a history of smoking. . ‡ Tuberculosis ± highly contagious bacterial infection.