Theory and Research

The Research Process ‡ Research is a sequential process. circumventing and skipping does occur: ± Steps may commenced out of sequence ± Steps may be carried concurrently ± Steps may be omitted . which involves several clearly defined steps ‡ It is illogical to claim that research requires completion of each step before going to the next ‡ Recycling.

Theory and Research ‡ The purpose of science concerns the expansion of: knowledge discovery of truth make predictions ‡ Theory building is the mean that allow the researchers to achieve this purpose: What produces inflation? Does student-teacher interaction influence student`s performance? .

Theory and Research ‡ Both these predictions: questions have elements of ‡ If we do such and such ‡ So and so will happen ‡ Indeed we are looking for explanation for the issues that has been raised in these questions ‡ Underlying the explanation is the whole process through which the phenomenon emerges .

‡ This theory once verified should allow the manager to predict the significance of dividend yield based on the investor¶s age.Understanding Process to Reach Prediction ‡ Prediction and understanding are the two purposes of theory: ± Understanding the phenomenon / subject allows the theorist / manager to predict the behaviour / traits of the phenomenon / subject ± from the knowledge of another phenomenon¶s characteristics ‡ A manager may theorize that ³age´ older investors tend to be more interested in investing income compared to young investors. .

Theory ‡ Theory is a systematic and general attempt to explain the phenomenon: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Why do people commit crimes? How do the media affect us? Why do some people believe in God? How is our identity shaped by culture? ‡ Each of these questions contains a reference to some observed phenomenon ± and the suggested explanation for the observed phenomenon is theory .

Proposition is the key element in this definition ‡ Theory development is a process of describing phenomenon at increasingly higher levels of abstraction. used as principles of explanations of the apparent relationship of certain observed phenomenon. .Theory ‡ More formally: ± Theory is a coherent set of general propositions.

Concepts .Constructs ‡ Concept is a generalized idea about a class of objects. attributes. occurrences or processes that has been given a name ‡ These names are created or developed or constructed to classify or identify a phenomenon ± all these may be considered as empirical realities ± ± ± ± ± ± Leadership Morale Motivation Inflation Happiness Productivity .

refer to a specific punch press machine in the concrete world of reality ‡ Concepts.Concepts . signs and symbols that pertains to various events. situations or objects ± For instance ‡ Asset ± is an abstract term. may vary in degree of abstraction ± and become more or less amenable to measurement . letters.Constructs ‡ Concepts are the building blocks of a theory ± they are abstract reality. ± Concepts are expressed in words.

.Constructs ‡ Theorists translate their conceptualization of reality into abstract ideas.Concepts . ‡ Thus theory deals with abstraction ‡ Concepts in isolation are not theories ± Concepts only considered as a part of theory. when are related to other concepts to construct theories.

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