- It consists of issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates. It also includes the process of motivation subordinates and providing leadership with an understanding of their hopes, beliefs and behavior pattern.

- Through the directing function managers bring about a balance between individual interests of employees and the interests of the organization as a whole. Directing is a function of all managers of the organization. It is an ongoing activity of managers.


€ Motivation ± the used of emotional force to move people towards an action. The word motivation comes from the Latin word ³movere´ which means to move. . € ³The Carrot and The Stick´ ± the use of rewards and penalties in order to influence desired behavior.

€ Motive ± is a stimulus which leads to an action that satisfies the need. € Achievement ± achievement of the goal satisfies the need and reduces the motive. which can be either physical or psychological.3 COMPONENTS OF MOTIVATION Need Motive Achievement € Need ± are caused be deficiencies. .

Theories of Motivation .

employees will produce more. .€ Traditional Theory (Frederick Taylor) ± is based on the assumption that money is the primary motivator. Financial rewards are directly related to performance in the belief that if the reward is great enough.

He stated that human needs in the form of a hierarchy should be satisfied in order from lowest to the highest needs.€ Hierarchy (Abraham Maslow) of Needs Theory ± one of the most important theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory postulated by industrial psychologist Abraham W. . Maslow.

HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS Self-Actualization (Achieving individual potential) (Self-esteem and esteem from others) Esteem (Love. removal from danger) Physiological (Health. food and sleep) . affections and other part of groups) Belonging Safety (Shelter.

(2) a need for power.€ Achievement Affiliation ± Power ± Theory (David McClelland) ± this theory holds that all people have three needs: (1) a need to achieve. . and (3) a need for achievement.

proper attention to the hygiene factors keeps an individual from being highly dissatisfied but does not make that individual motivated. . At best.€ Motivation-Maintenance (Frederick Herzberg) Theory ± this theory contends that motivation comes from the individual. not from the manager.

Rather. . He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. he saw the two theories as two extremes .with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between.€ McGregor¶s McGregor) Theory X & Y (Douglas ± McGregor developed two theories of human behavior at work: Theory and X and Theory Y.

Theory Y workers Consider effort at work as just like rest or play € Ordinary people who do not dislike work.€ € € Theory X workers Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible. Individuals who lack ambition. Depending on the working conditions. € Individuals who seek responsibility (if they € are motivated. . Individuals who desire security. work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. dislike responsibility and prefer to be led.

. This need is not something ³inborn´ but it can be acquired through training and teaching the trainees to think and behave in terms of achievement.€ Achievement McClelland) Theory (David ± an individual¶s ambition to do things better or achieve something is due to a very specific motive or need. McClelland calls this motive the need for achievement.

Herbert Simon) ± this theory states that the inducements provided by the organization must be kept in equilibrium with the contributions made by the employees. In other words. equal wages must be paid for equal work. This theory probably deals with sustaining motivation rather than increasing motivation. .€ Barnard-Simon¶s Theory of Equilibrium (Chester Barnard.

It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. . Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V). expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I).€ Vroom¶s Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) ± explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another.

. performanceoutcome expectancy (P>O expectancy).€ The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effortperformance expectancy (E>P expectancy).

± this theory of motivation is known as the reinforcement theory according to Skinner. the following are the components of motivated behavior: .F.€ Reinforcement Skinner¶s) Theory (B.

€ Stimulus ± the environmental setting in which behavior occurs (performance). € Reinforcement ± the reward given for good performance only. € Response ± the behavior level itself. .

Immature people are dependent on others and lack self-initiative. mature people are independent. .€ Maturity Theory (Chris Argyrie) ± Argyrie contends that as people grow (psychologically) and mature they strive toward the highest level of need in Maslow¶s need hierarchy: self-actualization.




the transmittal of understanding is the transfer of information from one person to another.COMMUNICATION The transfer of information that is meaningful to those involved-in general. .


€Interchange of thought or information. . €It is an important means of attaining organization goals. €It brings about mutual understanding and confidence.


Types of Communication €Downward Communication (Formal) €Upward Communication €Lateral / Horizontal Communication €Grapevine Communication .


instructions. . €Information sent down will be in the form of orders.Downward Communication €the information that flows down through the formal channels in organization. and routine information.

Downward Communication .

The channels used to carry the information downward: €posters and bulletin boards €company magazines and newspapers €employee and handbooks and pamphlets .

Advantages €Increases efficiency €appropriate for giving instructions €Ensures that everyone is working towards goals and objectives .

Disadvantages € Information can be distorted as it goes down € Information overloads € Lack of openness between managers and employees € It often takes things for granted € Superiors overestimate the amount of information the subordinates receive .


.Upward Communication A type of communication process where in the information originates at the subordinate level and flows up to the top of the hierarchical system. It is the upward flow of information from employees at the operational level to the top executive along the chain of command.

Upward Communication .

Upward communication takes place through: €suggestion systems €appeal and grievance procedures €complaint systems €survey questionnaires €an open-door policy €counseling method .

the problems of employees.Advantages €can get through knowledge . the results of their decision taken etc. . even that of the grass-root levels €It helps the management to understand the performance of employees.

irrespective of their status or positions in the organizational hierarchy.Advantages €Morale and enthusiasm of the workers are hugely boosted since they feel that they are always honored by their superiors. .

€It makes them feel to be an essential component of the organization. knowledge sharing etc. in their day-to-day operations. .€Free flow of upward communication helps the organization to introduce innovative techniques.

however it may detract from the authority of the management team that reside on top of the business.Disadvantage/s There could be a misplacement of hierarchy. . In this way colleagues send messages to the management above them which has its benefits.


Lateral / Horizontal Communication It is the communication that takes place at same levels of hierarchy in an organization. .

Lateral Communication .

Examples of Lateral Communication

between peers €Communication between managers at the same levels or between any horizontally equivalent organizational member

Advantages of Lateral Communication € It is time saving. € It facilitates co-ordination of the task. € It facilitates co-operation among team members. € It provides emotional and social assistance to the organizational members.

Advantages of Lateral Communication
€ It

helps in solving various organizational problems. € It is a means of information sharing € It can also be used for resolving conflicts of a department with other department or conflicts within a department.


.Grapevine Communication is the informal communication network within an organization. The grapevine is used to spread information bypassing the formal communication structure.

Grapevine Communication .

The people in the groups have something in common that links them together. .Grapevine Communication €Just like the grapevine plant: it spreads in random ways and it goes where it can. €The grapevine is formed by individuals and groups in an organization.

€ The grapevine in many ways helps keep people honest. especially in chaotic or changing times.Advantage € Grapevine communication creates a social bond where none existed. it can dissuade people from engaging on behavior that they don¶t want others to know about. € The grapevine fills in a gap that is left when official information is missing. .

€ We discount information when the source is a known gossiper. When gossip is being spread through the grapevine. and lives can get destroyed very rapidly.Disadvantage/s € much of the information that gets spread through the grapevine is not verified. € We also tend to believe the person sharing the rumor with us. careers. people's reputations. .


Ways To Communicate €Informal talk or ³grapevine´ communication. This is the most fundamental form of communication usually adopted by an informal organization. .

Ways To Communicate € Memoranda € Telephone € Conferences/ calls € Interoffice News € Letters € Reports Conventions € Meetings € Bulletin Board Notices € Exhibits and Displays € Visual Aids .


³Give every man thine ear. but few thy voice.´ .1. . You cannot listen if you are talking. STOP TALKING.Said Polonius (in Hamlet).

PUT THE TALKER AT EASE. This is often called a ³permissive environment. Help him feel that he is free to talk.´ .2.

SHOW HIM THAT YOU WANT TO LISTEN.3. Look and act interested. . Listen to understand rather than to reply. Do not read you mail while he talks.

REMOVE DISTRACTIONS. tap.4. Don¶t doodle. or shuffle papers. Will it be quieter if you shut the door? .

. EMPATHIZE WITH HIM. Try to put yourself in his place so you can see his point of view.5.

Don¶t start for the door or walk away. .6. BE PATIENT. Do not interrupt him. Allow plenty of time.

´ . conquers you.7. ³He who angers you. An angry man gets the wrong meaning from words. HOLD YOUR TEMPER.

you lose. Do not argue. ³if you win. This puts him on the defensive.8. He may ³clam up´ or get angry.´ . GO EASY ON ARGUMENT AND CRITISM.

.9. ASK QUESTIONS. This encourages him and shows you are listening. It helps to develop points further.

STOP TALKING. ³Nature gave man two ears but only one tongue. which is a gentle hint that he should listen more than he talks!´ . You just can¶t do a good listening job while you are talking. This is first and last.10. because all other commandments depend on it.


1. . Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating. the clearer it becomes. The more systematically we analyze the problem or idea to be communicated. Good communication planning must also consider the goals and attitudes of those who will receive the communication and those who will be affected by it.

ask yourself what you really want to accomplish with your message obtain information. initiate action. Examine the true purpose of each communication. change another person's attitude? . Before you communicate.2.

.e. Consider the total physical and human setting whenever you communicate. . the circumstances under which you make an announcement or render a decision. Consider. Meaning and intent are conveyed by more than words alone.i.3. your sense of timing . for example.

those who have helped you plan your communication will give it their active support. where appropriate. Consult with others. .€ 4. in planning communications. Such consultation often helps to lend additional insight and objectivity to your message. Moreover.

Your tone of voice. your expression.5. of the overtones as well as the basic content of your message. . and your apparent receptiveness to the responses of others . while you communicate.all have tremendous impact on those you wish to reach. Be mindful.

. Take the opportunity.6.the habit of trying to look at things from his or her point of view .will frequently reveal opportunities to convey something of immediate benefit or long-range value to her or him. to convey something of help or value to the receiver. when it arises. Consideration of the other person's interests and needs .

. and by a subsequent review of performance.7. This you can do by asking questions. Follow up your communication. by encouraging the receiver to express his or her reactions. by follow-up contacts.

. most important of all. but.8. While communications may be aimed primarily at meeting the demands of an immediate situation. Communicate for tomorrow as well as today. they must be planned with the past in mind if they are to maintain consistency in the receiver's view. they must be consistent with long-range interests and goals.

such as clear assignment of responsibility and authority.9. For a manager. and sound policy enforcement serve to communicate more than all the gifts of oratory. fair rewards for effort. Be sure your actions support your communications. . this means that good supervisory practices .

€10.in that larger sense of being attuned to the other person's unspoken reactions and attitudes. Seek not only to be understood but to understand .. Be a good listener. When we start talking we often cease to listen . .


There are several barriers in an organization w/c reduce the effectiveness of communication. The supervisor must be able to identify and recognize such barriers. . Successful supervisory performance requires the ability to recognize the barriers and to deal with them effectively.

1. It also makes the supervisor and subordinates difficult in seeking clarification. Distance The physical distance between the supervisor and his subordinates results in less faceto-face communication. .

etc.Carl Roger·s contends that the major barrier to communication is the tendency to make value judgments on the statement of others. emotions. .2. . Distortion This occurs when an individual fails to distinguish actual data from his own views. feelings.

Semantics This deals with the language aspect of communication.Graham states that the structure of our language leads to misinterpretation of the true nature of events.3. . .

either technical or administrative. Lack of Leveling This refers to various differences in the levels of supervisors and subordinates. Sometimes. .4. supervisors tend to use supervisory jargon. w/c is totally alien to the subordinates.

merit increase and good image.5. Lack of Trust This barrier has to do with the previous experiences of subordinates¶ dealing with supervisor. such as promotion. . There are supervisors who use subordinates for their own selfish interest.

. discussion. or guidance. or keep themselves busy with trivial things and therefore are not available to subordinates for consultation.6. Inaccessibility In some organization we find supervisors who are often out.

.7. Lack of Clear Responsibilities When a responsibilities assigned to the subordinates are not clear. they find scapegoats or come out with excuses.

Personal Incompatibility Often the personality of the supervisor and the subordinate clash and thus create communication blocks.8. personality factors dominate and issues become personalized. . Rather than viewing things objectively.

who by their careless attitude or arrogant nature. or inferiority complex feeling of ´I am no good. Refusal to listen may be due to a superiority complex feeling of ³I know everythingµ.9. refuse to listen to their subordinates.µ . Refusal to Listen There are some supervisors.

Some supervisors take great pride in sending written memos loaded with jargon to their subordinates who lack reading and comprehension skills. Failure to Use Proper Media The effectiveness of communication depends on how a supervisor chooses the proper media for his own situation. .10.

Without much planned effort. the networks tend to become large and complex.11. As the organization grows and expand. . Communication Gap This refers to the defects or loopholes in the formal network of communication.

Some messages have two types of content: the manifest or evident meaning and the latent or real meaning.12. the manifest meaning of message is made so attractive that the real meaning is lost. In some cases. Lack of Direction A lack of direction in message content may present a barrier. .


Is an important aspect of managing. . It should also become clear that understanding the other essentials of managing and doing the entire managerial job has an important bearing on assuring that a manager will be an effective leader. The ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to being an effective manager..

. - .Leadership is a process of influencing the activities of members of a group in performing their tasks of goal setting and goal achievement.Leadership is generally defined as the art and science of influencing people so that they willingly move toward the achievement of the group goals.


.Dictatorial Leader .Accomplishes tasks through fear of penalties. and maintains a highly critical and negative attitude in relations with subordinates.

Assumes a paternalistic role which forces subordinates to rely on the leader for their satisfaction. .Autocratic Leader .

Depends not only on their own capabilities but encourage consultation of subordinates.Democratic Leader . .

Depends a completely on subordinates to establish their own goals and to make their own decision. .Laissez-faire Leader .

Which exists in the formal organization is the right to issue directives and expend resources. - .Power and Authority Is the ability to command or apply force. .

Leader·s Attitudes
- Douglas McGregor developed two attitude profiles, or assumptions, about the basic nature of people. These attitudes were termed Theory X and Theory Y. - Theory X leader would likely use a much more authoritarian style of leadership than a leader who believes in Theory Y assumptions.

*The relationship between a leader¶s expectation and the resulting performance of subordinates has received much attention. McGregor called this phenomenon the self-fulfilling prophecy. It has been also Pygmalion in management.*

Theory X
1.The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it, if possible. 2. Because of their dislike of work, most people must be corrected, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives.

2. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort toward organizational objectives. . Workers will exercise self-direction and selfcontrol. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.Theory Y 1.

The average human being leans. under proper conditions. 4. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. not only to accept but to seek responsibility.3. .

6. distributed in the population. not narrowly. Under the conditions of modern industrial life. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized. . The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. ingenuity.5. and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely.

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