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Modern Systems Analysis

and Design

Chapter 1
The Systems Development
Environment

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Copyright 2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Introduction
Information Systems Analysis and
Design
– Complex process whereby computer-
based information systems are developed
and maintained
Application Software
– Result of systems analysis and design
– Designed to support specific organizational
functions or processes

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Introduction
Software engineering processes have been
developed to assist in system analysis and
design
– Methodologies
Comprehensive, multi-step approaches to systems
development
– Techniques
Processes that are followed to ensure that work is well
thought-out, complete and comprehensible to others on
the project team
– Tools
Computer programs to assist in application of techniques
to the analysis and design process
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Introduction
Information Systems Analysis and Design
– A method used by companies to create and maintain
systems that perform basic business functions
– Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by
applying software solutions to key business tasks
– A structured approach must be used in order to
ensure success

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Introduction
Systems Analyst performs analysis and
design based upon:
– Understanding of organization’s objectives,
structure and processes
– Knowledge of how to exploit information
technology for advantage

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Key Components of an Information
System
Data
– Raw facts that describe people, objects and
events in an organization
Data Flows
– Groups of data that move and flow through the
system
– Include description of sources and destination for
each data flow
Processing Logic
– Describe steps that transform data and events that
trigger the steps
Data vs. Information

Data
– Raw facts
Information
– Derived from data
– Suitable for human interpretation

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Approaches to Systems
Development: I
Separating Data and Processes that Handle
Data
– Process oriented approach
Focus is on output and processing logic
Based upon what the system was supposed to do, liking
billing and inventory control
Disadvantage: data files are tied to specific applications
– Data-Oriented Approach
Depicts ideal organization of data,
independent of where and how data are used

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Approaches to Systems
Development
Data-Oriented Approach
– Data model describes the kinds of data and
business relationships among the data
– Business rules depict how organization
captures and processes the data

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Approaches to Systems
Development: II
Separating Databases and Applications:
– Database
Shared collection of logically related data
Centrally managed, standardized and consistent
Sole source of data for multiple applications
– Application Independence:
Separation of data and definition of data from
applications
Databases are designed around subjects

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Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst
– Analytical
Understanding of organizations
Problem solving skills
System thinking
– Ability to see organizations and information systems as
systems
– Technical
Understanding of potential and limitations of technology
– Management
Ability to manage projects, resources, risk and change
– Interpersonal
Effective written and oral communication skills
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Types of Information Systems
and Systems Development
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
– Automate handling of data about business activities
Management Information Systems (MIS)
– Converts raw data from transaction processing system into
meaningful form
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
– Interactive environment for decision making
– Contain a database, model base and user interface
Expert Systems (ES)
– Codify and manipulate knowledge rather than information
– Interactive: ask users a sequence of questions dependent on
prior answers, which lead to a conclusion or recommendation
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Systems Development Life
Cycle
A common system development
methodology
– Standard process followed in an
organization
– Consists of:
Analysis
Design
Implementation
Maintenance
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Systems Development Life
Cycle
Series of steps used to manage the phases of
development for an information system
Consists of six phases:
– Project Identification and Selection
– Project Initiation and Planning
– Analysis
– Design
– Implementation
– Maintenance

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Phases of the SDLC
Project
Identification
and Selection
Project
Initiation
and Planning
Analysis
Logical
Design
Physical
Design
Implementation

Maintenance
Systems Systems
planning Implementati
and Systems Systems on and
selection Analysis Design Operation
Systems Development Life
Cycle
– Phases are not necessarily sequential
Return to an earlier phase
In parrelle
Interactive
Circular
– Each phase has a specific outcome and
deliverable
– Individual companies use customized life
cycles

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Phases of SDLC
Project Identification and Selection
– Two Main Activities
Identification of need
Prioritization and translation of need into a development
schedule
– Outcome: a determination of which project should
be undertaken
Project Initiation and Planning
– Two Activities
Formal preliminary investigation of the problem at hand
Presentation of reasons why system should or should not
be developed by the organization
– Outcome: a specified baseline project plan
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Phases of SDLC
Analysis
– Study of current procedures and information
systems
Determine requirements
– Study current system
– Structure requirements and eliminate redundancies
Generate alternative designs
Compare alternatives
Recommend best alternative

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Phases of SDLC (Cont.)
Design
– Logical Design
Independent of any hardware or software platform
– Physical Design
Technical specifications
Implementation
– Programming and testing
– Hardware and software installation
– User Training
– Documentation
Maintenance
– System changed to reflect changing conditions
1.20 – System obsolescence
Approaches to Development
Prototyping
– Design and building a scaled-down working
version of the system
– Advantages:
Users are involved in design
Captures requirements in concrete form
– A form of Rapid Application Development
(RAD)
Utilizes prototyping to delay producing system
design until after user requirements are clear
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Approaches to Development
Joint Application Design (JAD)
– Users, Managers and Analysts work together
for several days
– System requirements are reviewed
– Structured meetings

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Improving IS Development
Productivity
Computer-aided software engineering
(CASE) tools
– Facilitate creation of a central repository of
information for system descriptions and
specifications
– Automating routing tasks

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Summary
Information systems analysis and design
– Process of developing and maintaining an
information system
Modern approach to systems analysis
– Process-Oriented
– Data-Oriented

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Summary
Four types of information systems
– Transaction Processing (TPS)
– Management Information Systems (MIS)
– Decision Support (DSS)
– Expert Systems (ES)

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Summary
Systems Development Life Cycle
(SDLC)
– Project Identification and Selection
– Project Initiation and Planning
– Analysis
– Design
– Implementation
– Maintenance

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Summary
Alternatives to Systems Development Life
Cycle
– Prototyping
– Rapid Application Development (RAD)
– Joint Application Design (JAD)
Computer-aided software engineering
(CASE) tools

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