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testing the hypothesis that three or

more population means are equal.

For example:

H0: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = . . . µk

H1: At least one mean is different

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1 Overview

Definition

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

a method of testing the equality

of three or more population

means by analyzing sample

variations

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ANOVA methods require the

F-distribution

1. The F-distribution is not symmetric; it is

skewed to the right.

2. The values of F can be 0 or positive,

they cannot be negative.

3. There is a different F-distribution for

each pair of degrees of freedom for the

numerator and denominator.

Critical values of F are given in Table D

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F - distribution

Not symmetric (skewed to the right)

α

nonnegative values only

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2 One-Way ANOVA

Assumptions

1. The populations have normal distributions.

2. The populations have the same variance

σ 2 (or standard deviation σ ).

3. The samples are simple random samples.

4. The samples are independent of each other.

5. The different samples are from populations

that are categorized in only one way.

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Definition

Treatment (or factor)

a property or characteristic that

allows us to distinguish the different

populations from another

calculations if possible

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Procedure for testing:

H0: µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = . . .

2. Identify the P-value from the display.

3. Form a conclusion based on these criteria:

If P-value ≤ α, reject the null hypothesis of

equal means.

If P-value > α , fail to reject the null hypothesis

of equal means.

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Relationships Among Components of ANOVA

Figure 11-2

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ANOVA Fundamental Concept

Estimate the common value of σ 2 using

1. The variance between samples (also

called variation due to treatment) is an

estimate of the common population variance

σ 2 that is based on the variability among the

sample means.

variation due to error) is an estimate of the

common population variance σ 2 based on the

sample variances.

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ANOVA Fundamental Concept

Test Statistic for One-Way ANOVA

F= variance within samples

evidence against equal population means.

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Critical Value of F

Right-tailed test

same size n

numerator df = k -1

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

measure of the total variation (around x) in

all the sample data combined.

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

measure of the total variation (around x) in

all the sample data combined.

SS(total) = Σ(x - x)

2

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

variation between the samples. In one-way ANOVA,

SS(treatment) is sometimes referred to as SS(factor).

Because it is a measure of variability between the sample

means, it is also referred to as SS (between groups) or SS

(between samples).

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

variation between the samples. In one-way ANOVA,

SS(treatment) is sometimes referred to as SS(factor).

Because it is a measure of variability between the sample

means, it is also referred to as SS (between groups) or SS

(between samples).

= Σni(xi - x)2

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

the variability that is assumed to be common to all the

populations being considered.

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

the variability that is assumed to be common to all the

populations being considered.

2 2 2 2

SS(error) = (n1 -1)s1 + (n2 -1)s2 + (n3 -1)s3 . . . nk(xk -1)si

2

= Σ(ni - 1)si

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Key Components of ANOVA Method

SS(error or within)

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Mean Squares (MS)

Sum of Squares SS(treatment) and SS(error)

divided by corresponding number of degrees

of freedom.

MS (treatment or between) is mean square

for treatment, obtained as follows:

SS (treatment)

MS (treatment) =

k-1

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Mean Squares (MS)

MS (error or within) is mean square for error,

obtained as follows:

SS (error)

MS (error) =

N-k

20

Mean Squares (MS)

MS (error or within) is mean square for error,

obtained as follows:

SS (error)

MS (error) =

N-k

SS (total)

MS (total) =

N-1

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