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Perspectives on Consumer Behavior

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Consumer Decision Making


Decision Stage
Problem recognition

Psychological Process
Motivation

Information search

Perception

Alternative evaluation

Attitude formation

Purchase decision

Integration

Postpurchase evaluation

Learning

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Sources of Problem Recognition

Out of Stock

Dissatisfaction

New Needs or Wants

Related Product Purchase

Market-Induced Recognition
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New Products

Ads Help Consumers Recognize Problems

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Self-actualization needs (selfdevelopment, realization) Esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition, status) Social needs (sense of belonging, love)

Safety needs (security, protection)

Physiological needs (hunger, thirst)

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Nurturance, Love and Belonging

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Freudian Psychoanalytic Approach


Strong inhibitions Symbolic meanings

Subconscious Mind

Complex and unclear motives


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Surrogate behaviors

Probing the Minds of Consumers

In-depth Interviews interviews

Association tests

Projective techniques

Focus groups

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Test Your Knowledge


Critics of psychoanalytic theory believe any results from motivation research are unusable because: A) results are unpredictable B) the theory is too responsive to external environmental stimuli C) the research requires the use of very large samples D) the theory is too vague E) the research is too structured

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

MR Not All Positive or All Negative


Pros
Reveals hidden feelings, drives and fears Highlights importance of symbolic factors Shifts attention from what to how and why

Cons
Qualitative results from very small samples Varying, subjective interpretations Difficult or impossible to verify or validate

Motivation Research

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Sexy Ads Get Noticed

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Go Daddy Knows Sex Sells

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Information Search

Personal sources

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The Selective Perception Process


Selective exposure

Selective attention

Selective comprehension

Selective retention
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Using Color to Focus Attention

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Evaluation of Alternatives
All available brands
Brand A Brand F Brand K Brand B Brand G Brand L Brand C Brand H Brand M Brand D Brand I Brand N Brand E Brand J Brand O

Evoked Set of Brands


Brand B Brand F Brand M
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Brand E Brand I

Kelly is All the Tire You Need

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Two Forms of Evaluative Criteria

Evaluative Criteria Objective Price Warranty Service Subjective Style Appearance Image

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Different Perspectives: Marketers View

Enough power?

Traction okay?

Too pricy?

Product is seen as a bundle of attributes or characteristics.

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Different Perspectives: Consumers View


How does it cut the taller grass? How close can I get to the shrubs? Will the neighbors be impressed with my lawn?

Is it going to be as fun to use later this summer?

Will it pull that little trailer I saw at the store?

Will I enjoy having more time for golf?

Functional

Product Is Seen As A Set of Outcomes


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Psychological

Test Your Knowledge


_____ is a construct that represents an individual's overall feelings or evaluation of an object and is viewed as a learned predisposition to respond towards it. A) A motive B) A need C) Perception D) An attitude E) A decision rule

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Consumer Attitudes Focus on Objects

Individuals

Products

Ads

Brands

Attitudes Toward:
Media Companies

Retailers

Organizations

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Ways to Change Attitudes


Change beliefs about an important attribute

Change perceptions of the value of an attribute Add a new attribute to the attitude formation mix Change perceptions or beliefs about a competing brand
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Adding Attributes Changes Attitudes

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Purchase Decision and Evaluation


Preevaluation Decision Post evaluation

Integration processes

Purchase intention

Satisfaction

Heuristics Affect referral decision rule

Brand loyalty

Dissatisfaction

Cognitive dissonance

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How Consumers Learn

Thinking

Conditioning

Modeling

Intellectual evaluation comparing attributes with values

Based on conditioning through association or reinforcement

Based on emulation (copying) of respected examples

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Classical Conditioning Process

Unconditioned stimulus
(grapes)

Unconditioned response
(fresh and moist)

Association develops through contiguity and repetition Conditioned stimulus


(Lancme moisturizer)

Conditioned response
(fresh and moist)

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Classical Conditioning for Cosmetics

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Instrumental Conditioning Process

Behavior (consumer uses product or service)

Positive or negative consequences occur (reward or punishment)

Increase or decrease in probability of repeat behavior (purchase)

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Test Your Knowledge


A print ad for Chevy Ventura vans contains about ten times more copy than other ads in a recent issue of Better Homes & Gardens magazine. Which of the following theories states that this is an appropriate way to shape consumer behavior? A) psychoanalytical theory B) cognitive theory C) reinforcement theory D) affective modeling E) operant conditioning

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Cognitive Learning Process

Goal

Purposive behavior

Insight

Goal achievement
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External Influences on Consumer Behavior

Culture

Subculture

Social class Reference groups


Situational determinants

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Subcultural Ads Appeal to Shared Beliefs, Values and Norms

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