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Subjectivity in languages other

than English
Objective Summary

Tyler Thornblade
A System for Summarizing and Visualizing Arguments in
Subjective Documents: Toward Supporting Decision Making
Fujii, A. & Ishikawa, T., ACL Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment and
Subjectivity in Text 2008
Read by Michael Lipschultz
A System for Summarizing and Visualizing Arguments in
Subjective Documents: Toward Supporting Decision Making
Fujii, A. & Ishikawa, T., ACL Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment and
Subjectivity in Text 2008
Read by Michael Lipschultz
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A System for Summarizing and Visualizing Arguments in
Subjective Documents: Toward Supporting Decision Making
Fujii, A. & Ishikawa, T., ACL Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment and
Subjectivity in Text 2008
Read by Michael Lipschultz



ISCAS in Opinion Analysis Pilot Task: Experiments with
sentimental dictionary based classifier and CRF model
Huang, R., Sun, L. & Pan, L., Sixth NTCIR Workshop 2007
Read by Cem Akkaya

Conditional Random Field (CRF) model –


related to HMM

Started with lexicon provided by NTCIR


Frequency based: F(character in positive
words) - F(character in negative words)
Words aggregate character scores
Sentences aggregate word scores
Negation heuristic: flip sentiment following
negation term
Weight on opinion holders (how?)
ISCAS in Opinion Analysis Pilot Task: Experiments with
sentimental dictionary based classifier and CRF model
Huang, R., Sun, L. & Pan, L., Sixth NTCIR Workshop 2007
Read by Cem Akkaya
 Fairly typical features; more notably:
Named Entity recognizer
Opinion sources are triggers for nearby opinions

 Evaluation
Subjective/Objective and Polarity

Opinion holder extraction: F 0.489


ISCAS in Opinion Analysis Pilot Task: Experiments with
sentimental dictionary based classifier and CRF model
Huang, R., Sun, L. & Pan, L., Sixth NTCIR Workshop 2007
Read by Cem Akkaya

Related works:
John: "Opinion Extraction Summarization And
Tracking In News And Blog Corpora Authors:
Ku, L., Liang, Y. & Chen, H.Published in: AAAI
2006
 Also used concept of sentiment attached to
ideograms
 Very different source data for lexicon creation
"Identifying sources of opinions with
conditional random, fields and extraction
patterns. Choi et al. EMNLP 2005".
 Slightly more sophisticated techniques
Extracting Semantic Orientations of Phrases from Dictionary
Takamura, H., Inui, T. & Okumura, M., ACL Human Language Technologies
2007 Conference
Read by Mahesh

Idea: nouns acquire semantic orientation in


the presence of adjectives
Potts model
For each adjective, connect to it nouns that
co-occur
For each noun, connect it to other nouns that
appear in its gloss
 The edge weight is negative if the appearance in the
gloss is followed by a negation term
Extracting Semantic Orientations of Phrases from Dictionary
Takamura, H., Inui, T. & Okumura, M., ACL Human Language Technologies
2007 Conference
Read by Mahesh

Notable points
Unusual model
“Unambiguous” adjectives
Can accommodate certain (labeled) and
uncertain (inferred) data naturally in the graph
representation
Can dynamically add new words in cases
where noun is novel (but appears in lexicon
glosses)
Extracting Semantic Orientations of Phrases from Dictionary
Takamura, H., Inui, T. & Okumura, M., ACL Human Language Technologies
2007 Conference
Read by Mahesh
 Related works
 Tyler Thornblade:Seeing stars when there aren't many
stars: Graph-based semi-supervised learning for
sentiment categorization,Goldberg, A. B. & Zhu, X., HLT-
NAACL 2006 Workshop
 Another graph based technique; this is different in that it is
more of a global technique than one used to generate just the
lexicon but the model is applicable
 Tyler Thornblade:Taking Sides: Graph-based user
classification for informal online political
discourse,Malouf, R. & Mullen, T., Article, 2008
 This is another graph-based technique but one that is very
different and would be hard to apply to this work
 Latent variable models for semantic orientations of
phrases, EACL 2006
 Prior work
Deeper Sentiment Analysis Using Machine Translation
Technology
Hiroshi Kanayama and Tetsuya Nasukawa and Hideo Watanabe, COLING-2004
Read by Shilpa Arora

Adapts MT techniques to sentiment analysis


Converts Japanese text to form:
[sentiment] predicate ([attributes]+)
Examples
 (a)[favorable] excellent (lens)
 (b)[unfavorable] high (price)
 (c)[favorable] problematic+neg (recharger)
Deeper Sentiment Analysis Using Machine Translation
Technology
Hiroshi Kanayama and Tetsuya Nasukawa and Hideo Watanabe, COLING-2004
Read by Shilpa Arora
 Main patterns
 Principle pattern: Identifies sentiment units like "[unf]
bad <noun>", "[fav] like <noun>" etc
 Auxiliary pattern: Identifies sentiment units in
sentences like "I don't think X is good" that produces a
sentiment unit with negative feature
 Nominal pattern: This pattern is used to avoid a formal
noun (nominalizer) being an argument
 Evaluation
Deeper Sentiment Analysis Using Machine Translation
Technology
Hiroshi Kanayama and Tetsuya Nasukawa and Hideo Watanabe, COLING-2004
Read by Shilpa Arora

Key points
Deep parsing
 Is not confused by sentences like “I hope that X is
good”
 Recognition of double-ga affective adjectivals
 Wa and ga for sentiment disambiguation?
Nice annotator (SentimentAnalyser)
Exploring in the Weblog Space by Detecting Informative and
Affective Articles
Ni, X., Xue, G-R., Ling, X., Yu, Y., & Yang, Q., WWW Conference 2007
Read by Danielle Mowery

Document-level analysis of informative vs.


affective articles in the domain of Chinese
blogs
Three algorithms
Naïve Bayes
SVM
Rocchio
Large number (20,000) of feature
candidates evaluated with Chi Square
Automatic Detection Of Quotations in Multilingual
News
Pouliquen, B., Steinberger, R. & Best, C.,Proceedings of RANLP 2007
Read by Matt McGettigan
Four types of target sentences
1. Tony Blair said "We stand ready to support
you in every way."
2. "We stand ready to support you in every
way," Blair said.
3. Tony Blair visited Iraq… He said "We stand
ready to support you in every way."
4. Tony Blair visited Iraq… "We stand ready to
support you in every way," the British Prime
Minister said.
Pattern-based matching across 12
languages, with both language specific and
independent patterns
Automatic Detection Of Quotations in Multilingual
News
Pouliquen, B., Steinberger, R. & Best, C.,Proceedings of RANLP 2007
Read by Matt McGettigan
Evaluation
Precision
 81.7% correct, 17.5% incomplete, and 0.8% wrongly
assigned
Recall
 Overall, 13%
 76% of all quotes were explicitly unrecognizable
 Of the remainder, 54% were recognized
Both measurements done over very small test
sets
Automatic Detection Of Quotations in Multilingual
News
Pouliquen, B., Steinberger, R. & Best, C.,Proceedings of RANLP 2007
Read by Matt McGettigan
Related works
MemeTracker
 Simpler system
Searching for Opinions by using Declaratively
Subjective Clues
N. Hiroshima, S. Yamada, O. Feruse & R. Kataoka; ACL 2006 workshop on
Sentiment and Subjectivity in Text.
Extract a large number of webpages, extract
subjective sentences and finally
“declaritively subjective clues” (DSCs) via
annotation study
Number of DSCs > threshold used to
indicate subjectivity
Grouping of DSCs into “semantic categories”
E.g. “appearance”
Helped recall and F-measure greatly at some
cost to precision
Other interesting ideas
Searching for Opinions by using Declaratively
Subjective Clues
N. Hiroshima, S. Yamada, O. Feruse & R. Kataoka; ACL 2006 workshop on
Sentiment and Subjectivity in Text.

Results:
Searching for Opinions by using Declaratively
Subjective Clues
N. Hiroshima, S. Yamada, O. Feruse & R. Kataoka; ACL 2006 workshop on
Sentiment and Subjectivity in Text.
Related works
Tyler Thornblade:Building Lexicon for
Sentiment Analysis from Massive Collection of
HTML Documents,Kaji, N. & Kitsuregawa, M.,
Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on
Empirical Methods in Natural Language
Processing and Computational Natural
Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL)