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Dr Rahim Khan (Asstt. Manager AFAQ)
Ph.D Edu Psy (Srilanka Colombo) Website: www.afaq.edu.pk
Ph: 091-5892472 Ex:73,74
After attending this session the Participants will be able to; 1. Inculcate Philosophy of Education 2. Define Education 3. Classify kinds of Education 4. Identify various approaches to Education 5. Comprehend levels of Education 6. Discuss major Areas of Education
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Is a study of questions such as: What is education? What is the purpose of education? What does it mean to know something? What is the relationship between education and society? What values determine the development of civil society? What are the needs of children?
Philosophy of Education In Pakistan
"Education in Pakistan is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Pakistani citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large"
The Role of Philosophy
• Philosophy enable us to explain what, where, who, why, when and how of curriculum
what How curriculum When Why Who where
Multiple Philosophies/ Multiple Experts • While the experts can’t agree on the exact number of teaching philosophies; the numbers range between as few as two and upwards to as many as eight. Most agree, however that there are two basic categories under which all these philosophies fall- Teacher centered instruction or Student centered instruction. Below are eight frequently accepted philosophies and the category under which they fall. Teacher Centered Instruction: Perennialism Positivism Behaviorism Essentialism Student Centered Instruction: Progressivism Reconstructionism Constructivism Humanism/Existentialism
Comparison of Traditional and Progressive Education Models
A brief overview of the many diverse educational philosophies will assist the novice teacher in determining where they are on the educational philosophy continuum.
Perennialists are instructors who feel that the knowledge that has been passed through the ages should be continued as the basis of the curriculum; like the classic works of Plato and Einstein. Perennialist instructors teach based on reason, logic, and analytical thought. Only information that has stood the test of time is relevant. They do not illicit student input. The classes most likely to be considered under this approach would be history, science, math, and religion classes (Educational Philosophies in the Classroom, pg.1).
• The instructors whose teaching philosophies are based on documented facts and tangible truths are normally those that would be in the math and science departments. These teachers do not feel that the supernatural and religion should be part of the thinking process. The idea of uncertainty and the unknown is considered illogical (Educational Philosophies in the Classroom, pg.1).
• Behaviorists believe in rewards and punishments as an approach to controlling the teaching environment due to their belief in the intrinsic nature of humans to react to internal or external stimuli. This teacher centered system allows the students to be ultimately controlled by the educator who makes the environment pleasant or unpleasant dependent on the student’s behavior (Foundations of Education, pg.1).
• Essentialists believe that there is a universal pool of knowledge needed by all students. The fundamentals of teaching are the basis of the curriculum; math, science, history, foreign language, and English. Vocational classes are not seen as a necessary part of educational training. Classrooms are formal, teacher centered and students are passive learners. Evaluations are predominately through testing there are few if any projects or portfolios. These instructors easily accept the No Child Left-Behind Act because test scores are the main form of evaluation (Foundations of Education, pg. 1).
• This is a student centered form of instruction where students follow the scientific method of questioning and searching for the answer. Evaluations include projects and portfolios. Current events are used to keep students interested in the required subject matter. Students are active learners as opposed to passive learners. The teacher is a facilitator rather than the center of the educational process. Student input is encouraged and Students are asked to find their interpretation of the answer (Educational Philosophies in the classroom, pg.1).
• This student centered philosophy strives to instill a desire to make the world a better place. It places a focus on controversial world issues and uses current events as a springboard for the thinking process. These students are taught the importance of working together to bring about change. These teachers incorporate what is happening in the world with what they are learning in the classroom (Educational Philosophies in the Classroom, pg.1).
• Active participation is the key to this teaching style. Students are free to explore their own ideas and share concepts with one another in untraditional ways. “Hands on activity …is the most effective way of learning and is considered true learning” (Educational Philosophies in the Classroom, pg.1).
Also a student centered philosophy this educational method is based on the idea that the students should be presented with choices about the learning process. The student is engaged in all aspects of learning and works together with the teacher and their peers to develop a curriculum and evaluation system that allows for individual interests and abilities (Educational philosophies in the Classroom, pg.1).
Personalizing the Educational Philosophy (making it your own)
• The most important part of developing an educational philosophy is to be true to your heart. Take the time to truly search your deepest feelings about learning and teaching. Take a chance and try to incorporate the philosophies that are closest to your personal beliefs, reflect often and honestly about the effectiveness of your philosophy in the subject area and grade level you are teaching and make the needed modifications, remember it is a dynamic process so, allow your philosophy to grow as you do.
KINDS OF EDUCATION
1. Formal Education 2. Non-formal Education 3. Informal Education
1. Formal Education
A. Is learning typically provided by an education or training institution, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and leading to certification. It is intentional from the learner's perspective. The hierarchically structured, chronologically graded 'education system', running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.
Time and Routine Structured Education System State supported (Private) State operated Specified Curriculum Permanent Building Permanent Teaching staff Planned Examination System Certification at course completion
• • • • • • • • •
Examples: Schools, colleges, universities
2. Non-formal Education
A. Learning that is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. It is, however, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support). A. Is any organized educational activity outside the established formal system - whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity - that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives. Examples: Virtual University, AIOU
3. Informal Education
A. Is learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and typically does not lead to certification. A. The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment - from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media. Examples: Mosque, Community centre etc
Approaches to Education A. Personalized Education B. Individualized Education C. Challenging Education
A. Personalized Education
Teaching according to individual differences “No one has yet realized the wealth of sympathy, the kindness and generosity hidden in the soul of a child. The effort of every true education should be to unlock that treasure.” ~Emma-Goldman “The central job of schools is to maximize the capacity of each student.” ~Carol Ann Tomlinson
B. Individualized Education
• Exploiting various means to ends in the classroom • Various teaching strategies • Different teaching skills
C. Challenging Education
• Teaching according to the timely occurrences • Preparing for the challenges of time • Education learners in latest development
Levels of Education
• • • • • • • • • • Pre-primary Education Primary Education Post primary Education Secondary Education Higher Secondary Education Degree Education Post Degree Education Pre-scholar Education Doctoral Education Post-Doctoral Education
Major Areas of Education
• Academic Education
Science Education Arts Education
• Professional Education
Vocational Education Technical Education
Key Sources of Education
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