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Teachers As
. fter completing this unit, you should be able to:

3. Define the concept of guidance and counseling.

2. State the purpose of guidance and counseling.

3. Describe situations requiring guidance and counseling.

4. State who can offer guidance and counseling.

5. Identify the qualities and skills of good counselors.

• .
What is Guidance?
The word Guidance is derived from guide, which means direct, lead, Manage.

• .
Basic Idea of Guidance:

Choices for the people but its role is to help people in making choices
for themselves.
Misdirection may cause destruction

To help the child (individual) understand (i) himself
(potentials and Limitations) and
• (ii) the world around him so as to make his own decision
for dealing with the situations, he is confronted with.”
(Noorani, 1993:83)
• Through Guidance individuals achieve greater
awareness not only of who they are but of what they can
• (Rogers, 1961)
• “Guidance is assistance to the individual in the process
of development” (Miller)
• “Guidance is assistance given to individuals in making
wise choices, plans, interpretations and adjustments.”
Educational Guidance
• . Guidance is concerned with
the provision of assistance to pupils in
their choices in and adjustment to the
curriculum and school life in general.
Counseling is a process conducted in a one-to-
one relationship in which a human catalytic
agent, the counselor, aids the client to learn
what needed to enable him to resolve his
problems. (Dr. Wazim, 1995)

• “Counseling is a learning process in which

individuals learn about themselves, their
interpersonal relationships and behaviors that
advance their personal development.”
• (Shertzer & Stone 1976)
•Self Directing
•Self Relying .
•Self Developing
• . •Self Governing
•Self Sufficient
•Self Supporting

“Counseling may be considered a technique
which attempt to assist the individual to
understand himself, his abilities and
characteristics, his environment and his
opportunities and prospectus for attaining a
satisfactory and successful life.”
(Parveen, 1995)
Educational Counseling
Educational counseling is a process of
• rendering
. services to pupils who need
assistance in making decisions about
important aspects of their education,
such as the choice of courses and
studies, decisions regarding interests
and ability, and choices of college and
high school.
What is the difference between
guidance and counseling?
• Counseling is the • Guidance is the help
help that some that all students
students receive receive from
from professionals parents, teachers,
to overcome counselors and
personal and social others to assist with
problems that educational and
interfere with career development.
• Guidance tends to be directive, while counseling
is collaborative.

• Guidance is provided by someone

knowledgeable about the issue raised, while
counseling is provided by trained professionals
to enable others to think through their problems.

• In guidance, advice is offered; in counseling the

counselor encourages the counselee to explore
all possible alternatives that will help them to
make a decision.
Philosophy and functions of guidance

Philosophy of guidance

Frank parson, for the first time, introduced Guidance in 1908. It was based on
the philosophy, “Stop wastage of human time and energy”.

Guidance was properly started, after I & II World wars, in America. Philosophy
of guidance tells us about the following things;

• Every individual should be helped and guided to study and understand

himself as a unique personality.

• Guidance is used for adjustment

• Self-direction

• Creativity
Functions of guidance

Three major functions of guidance are;

• Adjustive function.

2. Distributive function.

3. Adaptive function.
Adjustive function
• Adjustment means “peace of mind”. If there is
peace of mind there is adjustment and the
peace of mind is due to adjustment. If some one
is not well adjusted to a situation he cannot
secure peace of mind. Adjustive function is not
needed to all. Some students are not well
• The counselor must know the individual, the
situation and the skills of solving problems. He
should spend a lot of time with unadjusted
students. Such students have some problems
like failure, frustration, disappointment,
persistent, unhappiness, lack of friends and
unsatisfied social life
Distributive function
• The guidance worker is to help the students to distribute
their energies wisely into many educational channels.
The teacher must know the students’ needs like food
needs, social needs and psychological needs.
• According to the needs the students should be given
information and opportunities for discussion and thinking
freely. Every individual is different from every other
• During guidance services these individual differences
must be kept in mind. The guidance worker should put
the right student on the right job. The guidance worker
must keep in view the capabilities, interests, and
aptitudes of every child.
Adaptive function
• The guidance worker must adapt courses and
activities to the actual needs of the students in
their classroom. It is the responsibility of every
guidance worker to adapt the educational
program to meet the interests, abilities and
feelings of the individual. The curriculum should
be a child centered and not a school centered.
The guidance worker collects data of the
individual follow up study, and individual
inventory etc.
Kinds or Areas of Guidance
The major kinds and the main realms,
concerning guidance, mostly to aid the
rising child, are.

• Educational,
• Social and
• Vocational,
• Educational guidance offers all possible kinds of help that a child
may need regarding his academic problems. It enables him to
understand his abilities and limitations and plan his education

• Social: Social guidance refers to the scientific process of character

education and personality development. Such guidance aims at
inculcating into children by various methods socially desirable
habits, traits and attitudes.

• Vocational: Successful vocational guidance is dependent upon

knowledge of the following factors.
• Job Analysis or an analytical knowledge of the various vocations
and their requirements.
• Aptitude Analysis or an accurate knowledge of the suitability of the
guidee for a particular vocation.
• Adequate vocation guidance at school level is the right and the
timely step in this direction.
Aims of Guidance
• To help the student to get information about getting further education.
• To help him finding out his physical, emotional and mental defects.
• To help him in making his personality attractive and effective.
• To help him in distinguishing between the right and wrong.
• To help him in getting information about scholarship.
• To help him the selection of co-curricular activities.
• To help him in respecting the teachers and elders.
• To help him in making his future plans himself.
• To help him finding out his trends and interests.
• To help him in making his character strong.
• To help him in knowing the dignity of work.
• To help him in expressing his views freely.
• To help him in standing on his own feet.
• To help him in the selection of subjects.
• To help him in the selection of vocation.
• To help him to become broad-minded.
• To help him to develop study habits.
• To help him in making good citizen.
• To help him in helping the poor.
• To help him in to be punctual.
Who can Guide and Counsel the Students

• Senior teachers or
• heads of department
• Principals & Vice principals
• Counseling department
• Classroom teachers
Triangular Problems of the Students
Home-centered problems:
• Biological needs and related problems.
• Psychological needs and related problems, and
• Social needs and related problems.

School-centered problems:

• Academic problems,
• Vocational problems,
• Social problems.
Community-Centered Problems:

• Problems of occupational adjustment,

• Problems of marital adjustment, and
• Problems of general attitudes and social behavior
Situations Requiring Guidance & Counseling

 Induction of new students and teachers

 Conflict situations
 Discipline situations
 Student motivation
 Study skills
 Using the library or information technology
 Opportunities for further education and
 Vocational guidance
Referrals to Guidance Clinic
• Troublesome children.
• Aggressive children.
• Nervous children.
• Delinquent children.
• Scholastically handicapped children.
• Mentally defective children.
• Miscellaneous categories of children.

• Methods and tools required for guidance

– Observation.
– Tests and Inventories.
– Interviews and Conferences.
– Autobiographies.
– Records.
The process of counseling
• Identify the Need for Counseling.
who, what, why, How
• Prepare for Counseling.
Schedule a suitable place
Schedule the time
Notify the subordinate well in advance
Organize the information
Outline the session components
Plan counseling strategy
Establish the right atmosphere
• Conduct the Counseling
Open the session
Discuss the issues
Develop action plan
Record and close the session
• Documentation
Although requirements to record a counseling session vary, a
supervisor always benefits by documenting the main points of a
counseling session. Documentation serves as a point of
reference between the subordinate and the supervisor to the
agreed plan of action and the subordinate’s accomplishments,
improvements, personal preferences, or problems. A complete
record of counseling aids in making recommendations for
professional development, schools, promotions, and evaluation
The counseling process doesn’t end with the
counseling session. It continues through
implementation of the plan of action and evaluation of
results. After counseling, you must support
subordinates as they implement their plan of action.
Support may include teaching, coaching, or providing
time or resources. You must observe and assess this
process and possibly modify the plan to meet the
goals. Appropriate measures after counseling include
follow-up counseling, making referrals, informing the
chain of command, and taking corrective action.
Types of Counseling

The directive approach works best to correct simple

problems, make on the spot corrections, and correct
aspects of performance. The counselor using the
directive style tells the counselee what to do and when to
do it.
In contrast to the nondirective approach, the counselor
directs a course of action for the counselee. Choose this
approach when time is limited, when you alone know
what to do, or if the counselee has limited problem-
solving skills. It is also appropriate when counselee
needs guidance, is immature, or is insecure.
Non Directive

• Nondirective is the preferred approach. Counselors use

their experience, insight, and judgment to assist the
counselee in the development of a solution.


• The word elective means choosing the best between the

two. It is that type of counseling which is neither purely
directive type nor purely non-directive one. It is between
the two. In this school of counseling, the individual is
allowed to talk and discuss his problems. The counselor
takes a lead in the discussion. He directs the client into
the right channel. Both of them discuss the problems
openly and finally they mutually come to a conclusion
Techniques of Counseling
The following counseling techniques, or combination of techniques, are suggested
for use during a counseling session.
• Recommending
Recommend one course of action, but leave the decision to accept the
recommendation to the counselee.

• Persuading
Persuade the counselee that a given course of action is the best, but leave the
decision to the counselee.

• Advising
Advising a counselee that a given course of action is best, this is the strongest form
of influence not involving a command.

• Corrective Training
Teach and assist the counselee in attaining and maintaining the standard. The
counselor gives the counselee pointers on how to best obtain the required standards.

• Commanding
Ordering the counselee to take a course of action in clear exact words. The
counselee understands that he has been given a command and will face the
consequences for failing to carry it out.
Do,s and Don’ts of Counseling

• Know yourself and your strengths
• Know the person you are counseling
• Find a way to connect and engage with the person you are
• Understand what motivates the counselee and their potential
• Recognize that each individual is unique
• Point out how the counselee has used/can use his/her strengths
to make significant contributions
• Keep an open mind
• Strive to be objective
• Above all, be a good listener
• Be late for the session
• Fidget (Play) with your pen or loose
• Answer the phone during the counseling
• Write continuously during the session ( it
is OK, however, to take brief notes)
• Appear hurried, harried, or distracted
• Qualities of a counselor
• to understand the home environment and social values of the counselee.
• the ability to make good relationship with the counselee’s parents.
• the ability of understanding the problems of the counselee.
• the ability of securing information about the counselee.
• have a constructive attitude towards the people.
• The counselor must have good personality.
• the ability to create pleasant environment.
• know the psychology of the counselee.
• the ability to adjust the disturbed child.
• the ability to motivate the counselee.
• Some skills for affecting people.
• the quality of influencing others.
• full command over his subject.
• be a religious-minded person.
• Knowledge of the individual.
• the ability of leadership.
• have a good character.
• be free from prejudice.
• be kind to counselee.
• be broad-minded.
• be sympathetic
• be confident.
• be punctual.
• be patient.
• be polite
Characteristics of Counselor
• . Sensitivity
to be model
Ethical behavior
Emotionally stable
Goodwill and caring
Intellectual competence
Personal dedication & commitment
• . Interests
. Discuss Your Child’s
• Ask Your Child:
1) What are your favorite school subjects?
2) What extracurricular activities do you enjoy most?
3) What are your favorite hobbies?
4) What do you like to do with your friends?
5) What special skills do you think you possess?
6) What have you done that you are most proud of?
7) What do you like to do with your free time?
8) What interests you the most?
• Administrative support/buy-in – key!!!
• Develop a curriculum meeting your
school needs
• Vision of program clear, concise,
• Involvement of students, parents,
• Staff training and in-service – a MUST!!!
• Organize plans for implementation
• Research for current trends
Benefits of an
Advisement System
• Get much more frequent one-on-one advice that is
possible with the typical school’s high ratio of
students to counselors.
• Are much more likely to have a clear focus on their
future and a plan for getting there.
• Take higher-level academic courses and
concentration of academic or career/technical
courses beyond the core.
• Improve performance when they have a mentor
who is keeping close track of their progress and
providing more timely help with academic
Benefits of an Advisement
• Become more involved as a result of annual
meetings and frequent communication.
• Know there is someone at the school with a
strong interest in their son or daughter.
• Feel they have a contact at the school they
can call at any time
• Have a better understanding of the courses
their son or daughter will need in high school.
As a result, they support the school’s decision
to enroll students in higher-level courses.
Benefits of an Advisement
• Have a better understanding of graduation
requirements and of all the school’s
• Develop strong bonds with their advisees
that continue long after graduation.
• See students from a different perspective
that helps them understand how to structure
classroom instruction to reach students
more effectively.
Role of Guidance Staff
• Assist in researching approaches and make
recommendations to faculty
• Assist in developing a schedule that allows time
for advisement activities
• Train the advisers
• Serve as a continuing resource for advisers
• Develop the Advisement Curriculum with the
assistance of administration and faculty
• Assist students referred by advisers with
academic, social, medical or mental health
• Serve as a resource during parent, adviser,
student conferences
Three Final Thoughts
• Kids don’t care how much you know
until they know how much you care.
• Teaching is a human relationship
activity – brain to brain AND heart to
• All schools want to improve, but few
want to change. The fact remains that
to improve, one MUST change.
• Enable students to understand themselves,
• facilitate the reduction of stress,
• help students discover and realize their own potential,
• help students and teachers to handle problems,
• help the guided and the counselee to make informed
• mould young people into responsible citizens,
• provide a basis for the creation or development of a
good school climate,
• enhance the quality of teaching and learning by creating
an enabling environment, and
• empower education managers to be proactive or to
• The purposes outlined above may not be exhaustive,
• but they underscore the need for guidance and
counseling in schools.