# Chapter 9

II
9.1 Values of Sine , Cosine ( 00   3600 ) and Tangent

9.2 Graphs Sine, Cosine and Tangent

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO
OPPOSITE SIDE (O)

Sin

H = A Cos H Tan = O A

= O

9.1 Values of Sine , Cosine and Tangent ( 00   3600 ) Identify the quadrants and angles in the unit circle A unit circle is a circle of radius of 1 unit with its centre at the origin 

The axes divide a unit circle into four equal parts, namely quadrants I, II, III and IV as shown in Diagram 1 Angles are measured from the x-axis in an anti-clockwise direction as shown in Diagram 2

y 1

Diagram 1

-1

0

1

x

-1

900

1

Diagram 2

II
1800

I
0 1
00

-1

III
-1
2700

IV

Location
From positive x-axis to positive y-axis From positive y-axis to negative x-axis From positive x-axis to positive y-axis From positive y-axis to positive x-axis

I
00 < < 900

II
900 < < 1800

III
1800 < < 2700

IV
2700 < < 3600

Determine the values of the y-coordinate, x-coordinate and the ratio of the y-coordinate to the x-coordinate of several points on the circumference of a unit circle

Example
Based on the unit circle (Diagram 3), complete Table 1

y

1 P Q Diagram 3
x

-1

0

1

R -1

S

Point x-coordinate y-coordinate y-coordinate X-coordinate

P Q R S Table 1

y

1
0.7

P
0.4 0.8 0.7

Q Diagram 3
-0.8 -1 -0.9

0

1

x

R

-0.6

S

-1

Solution
Point x-coordinate y-coordinate y-coordinate X-coordinate

P Q R S

0.7 -0.9 -0.8 0.8

0.7 0.4 -0.6 -0.6
Table 1 

0 .6 3 !  0.8 4  0.6 3 ! 0.8 4

0.7 !1 0.7 0.4 4 !  0.9 9

Verify that, for angle in quadrant 1, sin = y-coordinate, cos = x-coordinate and tan = y-coordinate x-coordinate

1

y

P(x,y)
1 Y

-1

0

x

1 x

-1

y

1

y P(x,y)

1
0

Y

Sin
1 x

= =

Y

1
Y

-1

-1

y

1

x P(x,y)

1
0 x

-1

x Cos = 1 x =x 1

-1

y

1

P(x,y) y x

Tan
1 x

y = x

-1

0

-1

y 1

= y- coordinate P(x,y) of P Cos = x-coordinate of P x 1 Tan = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P

1

Y

-1

0

x

Determine the values of sine, cosine and tangent of an angle in quadrant 1

Example
Based on the quadrant of a unit circle (Diagram 4), determine the values of (a) sin 240 (b) cos 240 (c) tan 240

y

1

P(0.9,0.4)

Diagram 4

240

-1

0

1

x

-1

Solution

y

1

Sin 240 = y-coordinate of P = 0.4 P(0.9,0.4) 240 Cos 240 = x-coordinate of P = 0.9

-1

0

1

x

Tan 240 = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = 0.4 0.9 = 0.44

-1

Q2

y 1
0.8

Sin 5308¶ = Q 1 y-coordinate P(x,y) of P = 0.8 Cos 5308¶= x-coordinate of P = 0.6
5308¶ 0.6

-1

0

Q3

-1

Q4

x 1 Tan 5308¶ = y-coordinate of P x-coodinate of P = 1.3333

Determine the values of sine , cosine and tangent for ( 00 ¡ ¡ 3600 )

Example
Based on the unit circle (Diagram 5), determine the values of (a) sin 1270 (b) cos 1270 (c) tan 1270

y

1 P

Diagram 5

1270

-1

0

1

x

-1

Solution
P

y

1
0.8

Sin 1270 = y-coordinate of P = 0.8 Cos 1270 = x-coordinate of P = -0.6

1270

-1

-0.6

0

1

x

Tan 1270 = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = 0.8 -0.6 = -1.33

-1

Determine whether the values of sine, cosine and tangent of an angle quadrants I,II,III and IV are positive or negative

in quadrant I ( 00 <
y
1

< 900 )

P(x,y)

Sin = y-coordinate of P = positive
x

-1

0

1

Cos = x-coordinate of P = positive Tan = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = positive

-1

in quadrant II ( 900 <
y
1

< 1800 )

P(x,y)

Sin = y-coordinate of P = positive Cos = x-coordinate of P = negative Tan = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = negative

-1

0

1

x

-1

y
1

< 2700 )

Sin = y-coordinate of P = negative Cos = x x-coordinate of P = negative Tan = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = positive

-1

0

1

P(x,y)
-1

y
1

< 3600 )

Sin = y-coordinate of P = negative Cos = x-coordinate of P = positive Tan = y-coordinate of P x-coordinate of P = negative

-1

0

1

x

P(x,y)
-1

Values of Sine, Cosine and Tangent of An Angle

Sin positive
0

All positive
Sugar
x

Tan positive

Cos positive

To Coffee

Determine the values of sine, cosine and tangent of special angles
y
(0,1) 900

P(x,y) y
1800 (-1,0) (1,0) 00

Sin Cos Tan

y
3600

x

0

x

x

y x

2700 (0,-1)

Determine the values of sine, cosine and tangent for special angles
y
(0,1) 900

Sin Cos Tan 0 0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0

1800 (-1,0)

(1,0)

00

90 x 180 270

0

3600

2700 (0,-1)

360

Sin
300 300 2 2

Cos
3 2 1 2

Tan
1 3 3

300 600

3
600 1 1

600

1 2 3 2

450

2

1

1 Sin Sin = Cos Tan 2 0 = 1 Cos 45 2

450

Tan 450 = 1
450

1

Determine the values of the angles in quadrant 1 which correspond to the values of the angles in other quadrants

in quadrant II ( 900 <
y

< 1800 )

E  U ! 180
0

0

0

x

E ! 180  U

y

< 2700 )

180  E ! U
0
x

0

E ! U  180

0

y

< 3600 )

E  U ! 360
0

0

0

x

E ! 360  U

Example
Find the value of angle E quadrant 1 in which corresponds to each of the following angles (a) 1090 (b) 2130 (c) 3080

Solution
y
0 0 0

E  109 ! 180
1090

0

x

E ! 180  109 ! 71
0

0

Solution
y

180  E ! 213
2130

0

0

E ! 213  180
x

0

0

0

! 33

0

Solution
y

E  308 ! 360
3080

0

0 0

0

x

E ! 360  308 ! 52
0

0

State the relationship between the values of the sine, cosine and tangent of angles in quadrant II, III and IV with the respect values of their corresponding angles in quadrant I

in quadrant II ( 900 <
Sin +ve
P y

< 1800 )
Sin = Sin

0

x

Cos

= -Cos = -Tan

Tan

y

< 2700 )
Sin = -Sin

Cos 0
P x

= -Cos = Tan

Tan

Tan +ve

y

< 3600 )
Sin = -Sin

0
P

x

Cos

= Cos

Tan

= -Tan

Cos +ve

Find the values of the sine, cosine and tangent of the angles between 900 and 3600

in quadrant II ( 900 <
Sin +ve
P
300 1500

< 1800 )
Sin 1500 = Sin 300 = 0.5000 Cos 1500 = -Cos 300 = -0.8660

y

0

x

Tan 1500 = -Tan 300 = -0.5773

y

< 2700 )
Sin 2250 = -Sin 450 = -0.7071

2250 450

0

Cos 2250 = -Cos 450 x = -0.7071

P

Tan +ve

Tan 2250 = Tan 450 = 1.0000

y

< 3600 )
Sin 3000 = -Sin 600 = -0.8660 Cos 3000 = Cos 600 = 0.5000

3000

0

x
600

P

Tan 3000 = -Tan 600 = -1.7320

Cos +ve

Find the angles between 00 and 3600 given the values of sine, cosine and tangent

SIZE OF THE ANGLE
If the value of sine , cos or tan are given and 900   3600, we can find the values of by following the steps below: 1 2 Find the angle ( ) in quadrant I which corresponds to . Determine the possible quadrants in which can lie, based on sign(positive or negative) of the value of sin , cos or tan . Find the values of which are corresponding angles of in the quadrant 2 found in.

3

Example
(a) Given tan = 0.6494 and 00   3600, find the values of .

Solution
a tan = 0.6494 = tan 330
1 2 Find by using a scientific calculator
is in quadrant I or III The given value is positive, thus

Therefore,

= 330 or (1800 + 330) = 330 or 2130
3
Find the corresponding angles in quadrants I and III

Example
(b) Given cos = -0.6018 and 00   3600, find the values of .

Solution
a cos = -0.4226 = -cos 650
1
The given value is negative, thus

2
Find by using a scientific calculator

is in quadrant II or III

Therefore,

= (1800- 650) or (1800 + 650) = 1150 or 2450)
3
Find the corresponding angles in quadrants II and III

Solving Problems Involving Sine, Cosine and Tangent

D

3 cm y0 A B x0 4 cm C

Sin y0 = Sin x0 = 3 5 Cos y0 = -Cos x0 = -4 5 Tan y0 = -Tan x0 = -3 4

In the diagram below, PQRS is a straight line. Given that tan = -1.2. Find the values of, (a) length of RS (b) cos x0

(a) Tan T

6 cm x0 P Q 3 cm R
ß

= -Tan ß -1.2 = -6 RS RS = -6 -1.2 = 5 cm

S

In the diagram below, PQRS is a straight line. Given that tan = -1.2. Find the values of, (a) length of RS (b) cos x0

(b) Cos x0 = -Cos y0 Cos x0 = -QS QT = -8 6 cm 10 = -4 5 S T

10 cm x0 P y0 Q 3 cm R
ß

5 cm

In Diagram 8, O is the origin of a Cartesan plane. y P(8, 15) The value of cos r 0

17

15

r

0

A  8 17 B  15 17
xC

2nd Quadrant Cos = -ve 0

r

0

O

8
DIAGRAM 8

8 Cos r =  17
0

8  15 17 D 15

82 + 152 = 172

8 15 17

In Diagram 9, KLM is a straight line. J 5 cm
x0

K

L 13 cm DIAGRAM 9

M

The value of tan x0 is. A B

5 12 12 13

C D

5  12
12  13

J 5 cm K 13 cm

12
U
0

x0

L
0

M

x0
0

Tanx ! TanU 5 ! 12

0

Given that tan xº = - 0.7002 and 180º  x  360 º. Find the value of sin x. A. B. C. D. -0.4266 -0.4766 -0.5647 -0.5736

SHIFT

tan 0 5x
MODE

tan-1

(-)

0

.

7 sin

0 =

2

=

-34.9997108
-34.9997108 = 325.0003

-0.573572292
Fix 1

1 Fix 0 9 ?

4

-0.5736

9.2 GRAPH OF SINE, COSINE AND TANGENT

Draw and compare the graphs of sine, cosine and tangent for angles between 00 and 3600

y 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

Graph of Sine

300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000 3300 3600

00 y=sin 0

900 1

1800 0

2700 1

3600 0

y 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

Graph of Cosine

300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000 3300 3600

00 y=sin 1

900 0

1800 -1

2700 0

3600 1

y 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

Graph of Tangent

900

1800

2700

3600

Solve Problems Involving Graphs of Sine, Cosine and Tangent

Diagram 7shows the graph of y = cos x y 1 x

0o

S

-1
DIAGRAM 7

The value of S is A C 90º 270º B D 180o 360o

y 1 x

0o

S

-1 90 180 270 360
DIAGRAM 7

The value of S is A C 90º 270º B D 180o 360o

1 x

0o

S

-1

90 180 270 360

SHIFT

cos
SHIFT

Cos-1

0 90 (-) 1 180

cos

Cos-1