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Equivalent Fractions

Equivalent fractions are fractions of the same value

1 2

2 4

2 4

8 16

1 v2 2 v2

2 v4

4 v4

8 16

Exercise 1
? ? ? ? ? ?

Complete the equivalent fractions.


3 1 x3 ! x3 3 9

3x2 6 x5 30 ! ! 4x2 8 x5 40 15 45x2 90 x3 ! ! x3 18 54 x2 108

To compare the value of two given fractions

3 8

1 2

>
3 8
is the greater than

1 8

2 3

x2
=

4 6

x2

5 6
2 Therefore, is less than 5 3 6

4 < 6

5 6

Arrange fractions in order


1 2 3 Arrange , , in decreasing order. 8 3 4
* make the denominators equal.

1 2 3 v3 v8 v6 , , v3 v8 v6 8 3 4

3 16 18 , , 24 24 24

The decreasing order of the fractions is

3 2 1 , , 4 3 8

Mathematics Form 1

Topic: Fractions
Subtopic: Subtopic: Understand the concept of mixed numbers and their representations.  Learning outcomes :1.Recognise mixed numbers 2.Represent mixed numbers with diagrams. 3.Write mixed numbers based on given diagrams. 4.Compare and order mixed numbers on number lines.


MIXED NUMBERS
DEFINITION REPRESENT MIXED NUMBERS
Example 1

EXERCISES
Extra

Exercise 1

Example 2 Example 3

Exercise 2

WHAT IS A MIXED NUMBER?


A WHOLE NUMBER
AND

A FRACTION
1 , 2 ,3 , 4

1 1 1 , , .... 2 3 4

DIAGRAM 1

Represent whole number

Represent fraction

4 4 1 + 2 4

2 4 1 2 4

DIAGRAM 2

4 4 1 + 1 4

1 4 = 1 1 4

NUMBER LINES
1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5

2 2+ 5

3 5

2 2 5

3 3 5

EXERCISE 1
 1.  a.

Write a mixed number for the diagrams

 b.

Exercise 2 Complete the number lines.


a.
3

b. 5

Extra Question
1 2 3 2 ,3 and 3 2 3 4
  

Mark the mixed numbers above on the number line. State the largest mixed number. Arrange the mixed numbers in ascending order.
Check your Answer!

SOLUTIONS
1. Draw the number line
from 2 to 4 2. Divide the line from 2 to 3 into 6 equal parts . 3. Divide the line from 3 to 4 into 12 equal parts. 1 2 4.Mark on the third 2 mark from 2 . 2 3 5.Mark 3 on the eight mark from 3 3 3 on the 6.Finally, mark 4 ninth mark from 3.
1 2 2

2 3

3 4

PROPER AND IMPROPER FRACTIONS


LEARNING OUTCOMES Recognize proper and improper fractions from given fractions Change mixed numbers into improper fractions Change improper fractions into mixed numbers.

PROPER FRACTIONS & IMPROPER FRACTIONS

PROPER FRACTIONS

numerator

denominator

PROPER FRACTIONS
1. A proper fraction is a fraction where the numerator is smaller than the numerator denominator. 5 12 27 99 2. For example, , , , and 3 6 13 50 121 are proper fractions.
denominator

IMPROPER FRACTIONS

= 1+ 7 6

1 6
numerator

denominator

IMPROPER FRACTIONS
1. An improper fractions is a fraction numerator where the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator. 6 6 10 3 16 5 54 7 117 25

2. For example,

and

are improper fractions.


denominato r

CHANGING MIXED NUMBERS INTO IMPROPER FRACTIONS Multiply the whole number with the denominator of the fractions Add the product to the numerator of the fractions Retain the denominator and write the result as the numerator

EXAMPLE
Add the product to the numerator (6x3) +1

1 3

(6x3)+1 3 19

Multiply the whole number by the denominator (6x3)

(10 x 7) + 6

EXAMPLE
10 x 7 + 6 7

10

6 7

10 x 7

76 7

CHANGE MIXED NUMBER INTO IMPROPER FRACTIONS


Multiply the whole number by numerator. Add the product to the numerator. Retain the numerator.

CHANGE IMPROPER FRACTION INTO MIXED NUMBER

17 8

2 8 17 16 1
2 Therefore, 1 8 8 = 2 1 8

quotient

remainder

17

EXAMPLE
2
47 20
quotient

20 47 -40 7

7 20
47 20 =2 7 20

remainde r

Therefore,

EXERCISE
1. Change the following mixed numbers into improper fractions. 1 1 a) 1 d) 7 12 8 5 6 3 4 5 e) 15 12 2 f) 12 11

b) 2

c) 3

EXERCISE
2. Change the following improper fractions into mixed numbers. 22 7 35 8 84 13 154 d) 15 211 e) 11 300 f) 155

a)

b)

c)

Multiplication
Multiply any three fractions Multiply fractions

Multiply a whole number by a fractions

Multiply fractions
1 3 v 3 5
Step 1. Multiply the top numbers (numerator) :

3 1 3 1x3 v = = 3 5 3 x 5 15
Step 2. Multiply the bottom numbers (denominator) : Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

3 z3 = 15 z 3

1 5

Multiply a whole number by a fractions


1 Solve v 6 3 1 6 6 v 6= 3 1 1
=

1v6 3v1

6 3

Multiply any three fractions


Solve 2 v 1 4 v 2

3
2 4 9 2 ! ,1 ! 1 5 5

2 9 2 v v = 1 5 3
=

2v9v2 1v5v3

36 = = 15

12 5

2 2 5

Learning Outcomes:

To divide fraction by a whole number and vise versa


Example 1

3 Calculate z4 15
=

3 z 15
1 3 v 4 15

4 1
=

Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor

3 60

Example 2

3 Calculate 4 z 15
4 15 = v 1 3
60 = 3 20 = 1
Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor

Simplify to the lowest term

20

To divide fractions
Example 1
2 5 Calculate z 3 8

2 = v 3
16 = 15

8 5

Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor

1 1 15

Example 2

Calculate
2 = z 5
2 = v 5

2 2 z2 5 3

8 3 3 8 =

2v3+2 3

8
=

6 = 40

3 20

To divide a mixed number by a mixed number


5 2 Solve 3 z 2 7 5
@
26 7
13

= =

26 7 26 7

12

5 12 6

z v

5 5

12

130 84 23 42

65 42

= 1 42

23

46 =1 84

COMBINED OPERATIONS
LEARNING OUTCOMES:


Performs computations involving combined operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of fractions, including the use of brackets. Solve problems involving combined operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of fractions, including the use of brackets.

COMBINED OPERATIONS
Order of operations:  Brackets . ( )  Multiply or divide from left to right. X


Add or subtract from left to right. +

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

() +

EXAMPLE:


2 3 + 3 4 = 8 12 + 9 12 = 17 12 1 12 x 1 17 =

z 17

Work the brackets first

z 17

LCM of 3 and 4 is 12

Multiply the reciprocal of 17

Change the mixed numbers into an improper fractions


7

1 4 +

2 7

Work the brackets

=7

=7


4
3

5x 7 2 x 4 + 4x 7 7 x 4

35 28 +

28

LCM of 4 and 7 is 28

=7 =


28
4

43

multiply

43

= 10

Change an improper fractions into mixed numbers

1 8 = = = = = z 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 5 66

z z z x


2 33

4 5 x 9 5 3x 4 x 5 5x 4 4 45 - 12 20


divide Multiply by the reciprocal of 33 20

33 20 20

3 4 2 1 x7 z2 13 5 3
16 39 8 = x z 13 5 3
3

Change into an improper fractions

Perform multiplication and division

16 39 3 = x z 1 13 5 8 48 8 = x 5 3 18 = 5 3 =3 5

Change into mixed numbers

A total of RM630 is divided between Baharuddin and Chong. 5 9

If Baharuddin receives

of the money,

calculate the amount of money Chong received?


19

x 630

4 9

x 630

=4X7

= 280
ANSWER = RM280

Rashid received a bonus of RM1920. 3 He gave of the money to his mother. 4 Calculate the amount of money Rashid received?

= 1920 -

3 x 1920 41

480

= 1920 - 3 x 480 = 1920 - 1440 = 480 ANSWER = RM480

EXERCISE
1. Calculate the value of the following and express the answer as a fraction in its lowest term. 5 3 12 a) + x 12 4 9 1 2 z 5 7 1

b) 10 - 2

c) 3 x

7-5 2 3

d)

5 6


2 z

1 2

2 5

EXERCISE
2. There are 150 workers in a factory. 1 3 3 5 of them are men and

of them are smokers. How many men are non-smokers?

3. In a class of 42 students,

3 7

are girls. Given that 5 girls and

1 3

of

boys wear glasses. Find the total number of students wearing glasses.