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Following questions are important

Short bits Feed back and control System and sub system System performance Open vs. closed system Long questions What is a system? List out the components of system? Differentiate between open and closed system and why business is called as open system?

SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM

BAKSHI

In the following lecture you will be familiar with


What is a system? What is a natural and man made system? Why business is called as a system? What are the components of a business system? What are the types of system?

EXAMPLE OF SYSTEM NATURAL VS MAN MADE

VARIOUS SUB SYSTEM

HUMAN BODY AS A SYSTEM

SOLAR SYSTEM

COMPUTER SYSTEM

WHAT IS A SYSTEM ?
SYSTEMS ARE CREATED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS.  One can think of the SYSTEMS APPROACH as an ORGANIZED WAY OF DEALING WITH A PROBLEM The word System comes (from Latin word syst ma, in turn from Greek word sust ma)
WHICH MEANS AN ORGANIZED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL UNITS / COMPONENTS

DEFINATION
THE SYSTEM IS INTEGRATED SET OF COMPONENTS /ENTITIES THAT INTERACT TO ACHIEVE A PARTICULAR FUNCTION /GOAL A SYSTEM CONSISTS OF GROUP OF INTERRELATED ,INTERACTING ELEMENTS WORKING TOWARDS A COMMON GOAL BY ACCEPTING INPUT, PRODUCING OUTPUT IN AN ORGANIZED TRANSFORMATION PROCESS.

OTHER DEFINATION
A set of detailed methods , procedures , and routines established or formulated to carry out a specific activity, perform a duty, or solve a problem.

OTHER DEFINATION
An organized purposeful structure regarded as a whole and consisting of interrelated and interdependent elements ( components ,entities ,factors, members, parts etc.). These elements continually influence one another (directly or indirectly) to maintain their activity and the existence of the system, in order to achieve the goal of the system

In order to call it a system it should have these Core components


INPUT
PROCESS OUTPUT

MAN,MECHINE,MATERIAL, LAND,FACILITIES,ENERGY, ECONOMIC RESOURCES,ETC

MANUFACTURING, ENGINEERING, PRODUCTION , DEVELOPMENT, DELIVERY , CUSTOMER SERVICE ,ETC

PRODUCT,SERVICE,PAYMENT, INFORMATION ETC

The organizational system


Feed back management control input process output Feed back

control

A SYSTEM FOR A PRODUCTION UNIT AND HEALTHCARE

OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

competitors

community c u s t o m e r s

CONTROL G o v t

Feedback Signals
CONTROL SIGNALS MANAGEMENT

Feedback Signals
CONTROL SIGNALS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
s u p p l i e r s

INPUT PROCESS
MAN,MECHINE,MATERIAL,L AND,FACILITIES,ENERG,ECO NOMIC RESOURCES,ETC

OUTPUT

System Boundary
Labor union
OTHER SYSTEMS

MANUFACTURING, ENGINEERING, PRODUCTION,DEVELOPME NT,DELIVERY,CUSTOMER SERVICE,ETC

PRODUCT,SERVICE,PAYMENT, INFORMATION ETC

s t o c k h o l d e r s

Financial institution
OTHER SYSTEMS OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

competitors

community c u s t o m e r s

CONTROL G o v t

Feedback Signals
CONTROL SIGNALS MANAGEMENT

Feedback Signals
CONTROL SIGNALS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
s u p p l i e r s s t o c k h o l d e r s

STRUCTURE
INFRASTRUCTURE,TECHNOLOGY,PE OPLE, PATIENTS,FACILITIES,MONEY,ECON OMIC RESOURCES,ETS

PROCESS

OUTCOME
CURED PATIENT,LAMA,DEAD BODY, REFERENCE

DIAGNOSTICS,THERAPEU TICS,SUPPORTIVE,ADMINI STRATIVE ETC

System Boundary
Labor union
OTHER SYSTEMS OTHER SYSTEMS

Financial institution
OTHER SYSTEMS

COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
The Components Of A System Are 1. INPUT 2. PROCESS 3. OUTPUT 4. BOUNDARY 5. ENVIRONMENT 6. STRUCTURE 7. INTERFACE 8. SUBSYSTEM 9. FEEDBACK AND CONTROL

BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM
Business is considered as ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM  THE ECONOMIC RESOURCES (INPUT) ARE TRANSFORMED BY VARIOUS OPERATIONS (PROCESSES) INTO GOODS/ SERVICES (OUTPUT)

INFORMATION SYSTEM PROVIDES (FEEDBACK) ON THE SYSTEM TO THE MANAGEMENT FOR THE DIRECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM (CONTROL) AS IT EXCHANGES INPUT & OUTPUT WITH ITS (ENVIRONMENT.)

A system has VARIOUS SUB SYSTEM, BOUNDARY, which separates it self from EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT , AND DEFINES ITS OPERATIONAL TERRITORY.

Input

It Involves CAPTURING AND ASSEMBLING ELEMENTS THAT ENTER THE SYSTEM To Be Processed. THE QUALITY OF INPUT ELEMENTS DECIDES THE PROCESS EFFICIENCY AND OUTPUT E.G.RAW MATERIALS , ENERGY , DATA, HUMAN EFFORTS ETC

Process It is a TRANSFORMATION ACTIVITY that converts input- output, the process can be manual, semi automatic, fully automated, Computerized.. E.G. MANUFACTURING , ENGINEERING ETC Output The elements which had been produced after transformation process (end product) Output is a DEPENDENT VARIABLE and is based on quality of input and process, WHICH IS A MAIN SOURCE OF FEED BACK. e.g. PRODUCT,SERVICE,PAYMENT,INFORMATION

Boundary

It DEFINES THE EXTENT AND SCOPE OF THE SYSTEM ACTIVITY A BOUNDARY SEPARATES A SYSTEM FROM ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT A boundary can be physical/logical e.g. EGG SHELL, SKIN, INFORMATION SYSTEM OPERATIONS SURROUNDING OF A SYSTEM IN which a system operates is called environment It consists of interacting entities like (customers, govt, suppliers ) Environment PROVIDES INPUT TO THE SYSTEM Environment STRONGLY INFLUENCE THE SYSTEM and determines boundaries some times Environment can be internal /external.
(cont)

Environment

Subsystem A system internally have small system (SYSTEM WITH IN SYSTEM) A subsystem provides SPECIALIZED TASK relative to OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF SYSTEM A sub system has INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVE in time with the systems overall objective e.g. INVENTORY BELONGS TO BOTH PRODUCTION AND FINANCE , BILLING IS A PART OF ALMOST ALL THE SUB SYSTEMS OF HOSPITAL If a subsystem fails the entire system has to suffer The OUTPUT OF ONE SUBSYSTEM BECOME INPUT TO ANOTHER SUB SYSTEM (e.g. cash collected becomes input to financial subsystem which in turn becomes input to payments etc)

Interface

INTERFACE IS COMMON CONNECTION AT THE SYSTEM AND SUBSYSTEM An interface serves as a MEDIUM TO CONVEY THE OUTPUT FROM ONE SYSTEM TO ANOTHER SYSTEM

Information flow and exchange is through interface Feedback Feedback is an INDICATOR and control CONTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT THE CURRENT PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM CONTROL INVOLVES MONITORING AND EVALUATING FEED BACK to determine whether a system is making towards the achievement of its goals (cont)

Feedback WITH FEEDBACK AND CONTROL NECESSARY and adjustment to the system can be done to ensure control GOOD WORKING OF THE SYSTEM A system which has FEEDBACK AND CONTROL COMPONENT is also called as CYBERNETICS SYSTEM (SELF MONITORING AND SELF REGULATING SYSTEM) Feedback has data about performance of the system e.g. A SALES MANAGER EXCESSES CONTROL WHEN HE FINDS NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT SALES PERFORMANCE. With effective feedback and control a system can continuously improved ,FEED BACK CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE Positive feedback tells that system is moving in the right direction (activities can be repeated /improved) Negative feedback tells a failure/fault so necessary adjustments can be done to improve the overall system. (cont)

Feed back

management control

Feed back control output

control input

process

TYPES OF SYSTEM

Natural system (human body, eco system, solar system) vs. man made system (computer) Open system vs. closed system Deterministic system vs. probabilistic system

CLOSED SYSTEM
A CLOSED SYSTEM IS THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS THE COMPONENTS WITHIN THE CLOSED SYSTEM ARE ASSUMED TO EXIST IN A SELF-SUFFICIENT STATE A CLOSED SYSTEM IS SELF CONTAINED AND HAS HIGH AND RIGID BOUNDARIES IN CLOSED SYSTEM THERE IS NO EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS AND PARTS WITH THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ALL OTHER INFLUENCES OR VARIABLES FROM OUTSIDE THE SYSTEM ARE CONSIDERED TO BE NONEXISTENT OR INSIGNIFICANT THERE IS NO PERFECT CLOSED SYSTEM EXISTING

No exchange with the environment

OPEN SYSTEM
ARE THE REAL-WORLD SYSTEMS  THAT HAVE PERMEABLE BOUNDARIES THROUGH WHICH THEY CONTINUALLY EXCHANGE ENERGY, MATERIAL, AND INFORMATION WITH THEIR EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT THE LARGER SYSTEM IN WHICH THEY EXIST IT IS OPEN TO THE ENVIRONMENT (INTERACTS WITH OTHER SYSTEM IN ITS ENVIRONMENT)E.G. BUSINESS IS A OPEN SYSTEM IN OPEN SYSTEM THERE IS FREE EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS, INFORMATION , DATA WITH THE ENVIRONMENT IT IS AN EXPOSED SYSTEM WHICH HAS FREE INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT HAS GREAT IMPACT ON OPEN SYSTEM , AN IT HAS TO ADJUST ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENT .
Feed back

input

process

output

BUSINESS AS A OPEN SYSTEM


IT ACCEPTS MATERIALS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT (SUPPLIERS) IT ACCEPTS MAN POWER FROM THE ENVIRONMENT IT UTILIZES OTHER ECONOMIC RESOURCES FROM THE ENVIRONMENT IT HAS TO ADJUST (FOLLOW RULES AND REGULATIONS OF GOVT ) SUPPLIERS,LABOR UNION ETC THE OUT PUT (GOODS, SERVICES, FINISHED , SEMI FINISHED PRODUCTS,PAYMENTS) ARE GIVEN BACK TO THE ENVIRONMENT. IT TAKES FEED BACK AND IMPLEMENT CONTROL

INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Bakshi

What are we going to learn.


What is IS What does IS consists of Classification of IS What is TPS Types of TPS What is MIS Structure and parts of MIS

Myth about IS success


1.Can IS bring changes ? NO IS ALONE JUST CANNOT BRING CHANGE BY ITSELF The involvement from each and every department (FUNCTIONAL AREA) and activity(HIREARCHY) is important

Myth about IS success


2.Do I have to spend more on IT &IS ? The cost of information system depends ON VARIOUS factors but ADOPT IT IN YOUR WORK CULTURE it pays in longer run THERE ARE BOTH FINANCIAL AND NONFINANCIAL BENEFITS ASSOCIATED

Myth about IS success


3.Is my Hospital going to accept IS ? Yes, the initial transit period is difficult but later on the results can be seen

Myth about IS success


4. I have invested on IS and it is not giving me results ? It may happen if your information system is not FULLY INTEGRATED THE ACTIVITS AND FUNCTIONAL UNITS DOES NOT RESPOND.

Myth about IS success


5. Where can I see the benefits of IS implementation ? The benefits can be seen on VARIOUS aspects SUCH AS BETTER CUSTOMER SERVICE, IMPROVED WORK EFFICENCY, COST REDUCTION, WORK PROCESS IMPROVEMENT, ERROR REDUCTION, TIMELY INFORMATION SUPPLY ..

marketing

Human resource Information manufact system uring

finance

INFORMATION SYSTEM IS NOT AN INDEPENDENT SYSTEM YOU CANNOT EXPECT THE RESULTS IF IT IS NOT AN FULLY INTEGRATED SYSTEM

Information system
An information system is an ORGANIZED COMBINATION OF PEOPLE HARDWARE SOFTWARE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS DATA RESOURCES THAT COLLECT, TRANSFORM, AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATION IN AN ORGANIZATION

A information system includes HARDWARE SOFTWARE INFORMATION ,DATA & APPLICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS

Information system consists of

people data software hardware networks

+
COLLECT TRANSFORM DISSEMINATE INFORMATION

+
AVAILABLE FOR ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS

Diagrammatic representation THIS INFORMATION IS

Information system classification for a production unit

Information system

Support business operations

Operational support system

Management support system

Support managerial decision making

Transaction processing system Processing business transaction

Process control system Control of industrial processing

Enterprise collaboratio n system Team and work group collaboration

Management information system Pre specified reporting to managers

Decision support system Interactive decision support

Executive informatio n system Information tailored for executives

Information system classification for a hospital

Information system

Support business operations

Hospital Operational support system

Hospital Management support system

Support managerial decision making

Transaction Data processing capture system system Processing Capturing of business data at point transaction of origin (EDI,POS,PR OCESS CONTROL)

Enterprise collaboratio n system Team and work group collaboration

Hospital Management information system Pre specified reporting to managers

Hospital Decision support system Interactive decision support

Executive informatio n system Information tailored for executives

What is Management Information System


Management information system is *AN INTEGRATED USER MACHINE SYSTEM *FOR PROVIDING INFORMATION *TO SUPPORT THE OPERATIONS, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING FUNCTION *IN AN ORGANIZATION The system utilizes *COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE *MANUAL PROCEDURES *MODELS FOR ANALYSIS, PLANNING, AND CONTROL, DECISION MAKING. *AND HAS A DATA BASE

Parts of MIS
FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEM All functional area in a organization ACTIVITY SUBSYSTEM All activity in a organization

THE STRUCTURE CAN BE REPRESENTED BY USING A PYRAMID

1 2 1 2 3 4 5 3

Parts of MIS
FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEM 1.SALES AND MARKETING SUBSYSTEM 2.FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SUBSYSTEM 3.PRODUCTION SUBSYSTEM 4.PERSONNEL SUBSYSTEM 5.LOGESTICS SUBSYSTEM ACTIVITY SUBSYSTEM 1.STRATEGIC SUBSYSTEM 2.TACTICAL SUBSYSTEM 3.OPERATIONAL SUBSYSTEM

1 2 1 2 3 4 5 3

2 3

=
1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5

SALES AND

FINANCE

PRODUCTI LOGISTIC PERSONN AND ON S EL MARKETING ACCOUNTIN G STRATEGIC PLANNING MODEL TACTICAL CONTROL BASE

DATA BASE MANAG EMENT SYSTEM

OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT

(DBMS)

COMMON TRANASACTION PROCESSING APPLICATION

UNIQUE FILES COMMON DATABASE

DATA BASE

FOR A HOSPITAL THE MIS CAN HAVE

MIS in the hospital has following MIS

FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEM 1.CLINICAL SUBSYSTEMS 2.NONCLINICAL/PARA MEDICAL SUBSYSTEM 3.SUPPORTIVE SUBSYSTEM 4.ADMINISTRATIVE SUBSYSTEM 5.ENGINEERING SUBSYSTEM

ACTIVITY SUBSYSTEM 1.STRATEGIC SUBSYSTEM 2.TACTICAL SUBSYSTEM

3.OPERATIONAL SUBSYSTEM

1 2 1 2 3 4 5 3

2 3

=
1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5

CLINICAL

NON SUPPORTIVE CLINICAL SUB

SUB SYSTEM SUB SYSTEM SYSTEM

ADMINIS TRATIVE SUB SYSTEM

ENGINEERING SUB SYSTEM

STRATEGIC PLANNING TACTICAL CONTROL

DATA MODEL BASE BASE MANAG EMENT SYSTEM

OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT

(DBMS)

COMMON TRANASACTION PROCESSING APPLICATION

UNIQUE FILES COMMON DATABASE

DATA BASE

1.CLINICAL SUBSYSTEM
OUT PATIENT RELATED MODULES INPATIENT RELATED MODULES CASUALTY / ICU RELATED MODULES OPERATION THEATER RELATED MODULES LABOUR ROOM RELATED MODULES NURSING SERVICES RELATED MODULES

2.NON CLINICAL SUBSYSTEM


LABROTARY MODULES PHARMACY MODULES RADIOLOGY MODULES BLOOD BANK MODULES DIETARY MODULES INFECTION CONTROL MODULES MORTARY RELATED MODULES

3.SUPPORTIVE SUBSYSTEM
HOUSE KEEPING MODULES LAUNDARY MODULES AMBULANCE AND TRANSPORTATION MODULES SECURITY BASED MODULES PARKING MODULES CORRESPONDENCE MODULE

4.ADMINISTRATIVE SUBSYSTEM
MARKETING MODULES HUMAN RESOURCE MODULES LOSGISTICS AND INVENTORY MODULE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING MODULES RESEARCH AND DEVELOMENT MEDICAL RECORDMODULES

5.ENGINEERING & MAINTAINANCE MODULES


BIOMEDICAL,MECHINICAL,ELECTRICAL,CIVIL ENGINEERING MODULES

Goals of an MIS
Provide managers with information Regular, routine operations Control, organize and plan better

Employees Corporate databases of internal data Databases of external data Corporate intranet Decision support systems Executive support systems

Business transactions

Transaction processing systems

Databases of valid transactions

Management information systems

Application databases

Operational databases

Drill-down reports Exception reports Demand reports Key-indicator reports

Expert systems

Input and error list

Scheduled reports

Outputs of a Management Information System


Scheduled reports
Produced periodically, or on a schedule (daily, weekly, monthly)

Key-indicator report
Summarizes the previous days critical activities Typically available at the beginning of each day

Demand report
Gives certain information at a managers request

Exception report
Automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action

Internet

An Organizations MIS Financial MIS

Business transactions

Transaction processing systems

Databases of valid transactions

Accounting MIS

Drill down reports Exception reports Demand reports

Marketing MIS

Key-indicator reports Scheduled reports

Business transactions

Databases of external data

Human Resources MIS Etc.

Etc.

Extranet

Typical Inputs and Outputs


Inputs: Information from the TPS Outputs: hard and softcopy reports Scheduled reports On-demand reports Key-indicator (business fundamentals) Exception reports

What Kinds Of People Pursue MIS Degrees? The Profiles Of MIS Professionals Are Varied, But In General, Such Individuals Possess Many Of The Following Traits: Good Problem Solving Skills Ability To Effectively Manage Time And Resources A Clear Vision Of The Big Picture As Well As The Small Details A Desire To Work Closely With Other People Excellent Communication Skills Ability To Think Strategically About Technology A Desire To Take Responsibility For Developing And Implementing Their Own Ideas

What are typical career options for MIS professionals? IT Consultant Web Developer Information Systems Manager Business Intelligence Analyst Network Administrator Business Application Developer Systems Analyst Technical Support Specialist Business Analyst Systems Developer

What is an average salary for an MIS professional? From 2002 to 2009, MIS undergraduate starting average salaries rose from $42,165 - $56,000.

TPS, MIS, DSS, and AI/ES


Hierarchy:
Information EIS/ES DSS
Routine Decision support Input & output

Less

More

Less

More

MIS Data TPS More Less More

Sophistication & complexity of processing & analysis

Less

Transactions
Transactions are BASIC BUSINESS OPERATIONS SUCH AS CUSTOMER ORDERS, PURCHASE ORDERS, RECEIPTS, SUPPLIERS ACCOUNTS , INVOICES, AND PAYROLL CHECKS.. That are generated IN AN ORGANIZATION IN A HOSPITAL THE TRANSACTION, SUCH AS PATIENT INFORMATION , PATHOLOGICAL TEST INFORMATION, THE LEDGER, ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND RECEIVABLE, PAYROLL, INVENTORY TRANSACTIONS. Are generated every time and every where Who should involve and take care of each and every transaction TPS

Transaction processing systems (TPS)

IS A SYSTEM THAT PERFORM ROUTINE OPERATIONS AND SERVE AS A FOUNDATION FOR OTHER SYSTEMS TWO TYPES OF TPS

Two types of TPS:

Batch AND On-Line Transaction Processing

Batch processing
Batch processing A SYSTEM WHEREBY BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS ARE ACCUMULATED OVER A PERIOD OF TIME AND PREPARED FOR PROCESSING AS A SINGLE UNIT OR BATCH In batch processing, the FIRM COLLECTS DATA FROM TRANSACTIONS AS THEY OCCUR, PLACING THEM IN GROUPS OR BATCHES

On-line transaction processing (OLTP)


A system WHEREBY EACH TRANSACTION IS PROCESSED IMMEDIATELY, WITHOUT THE DELAY OF ACCUMULATING TRANSACTIONS INTO A BATCH In online processing, data are processed as soon as a transaction occurs

Batch processing

Data entry of accumulated transactions

Input (batched)

Output

EXAMPLE :-BILL GENERATION OF credit card transactions ones in 30 days

On-line processing
Terminal Terminal Terminal

Output
Terminal

Immediate processing of each transaction

Terminal Terminal

EXAMPLE :-ATM transactions

Objectives of TPS
PROCESS DATA GENERATED BY AND ABOUT transactions Maintain a HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY Ensure DATA AND INFORMATION INTEGRITY AND ACCURACY Produce TIMELY DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS Increase WORKERS EFFICIENCY Help provide INCREASED AND ENHANCED SERVICE Help BUILD AND MAINTAIN CUSTOMER INFORMATION and loyalty Achieve COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Event

Data entry & input

Processing

Documents & reports


Documents: pick list

Internally generated transactions: shipped orders purchase orders employee time cards Externally generated transactions: customer orders vendor invoices customer payments Database update: customer orders inventory purchase orders customers suppliers

Database

cheques to vendors receiving notices A/C paycheques Operational reports: finished product inventory status raw materials; packing materials; spare parts; inventory status

Data Processing Activities Common to TPSs


A transaction processing cycle
Data collection Data editing Data correction Data manipulation Data storage Document production

Original data Data collection Data edit Data manipulation Data storage Document production

Data correction

WHEN DID HMIS STARTED AND WHAT ARE ITS GENERATION OR HOW CAN WE SEE THE HMIS
BAKSHI

WHEN DID IT STARTED.


The FIRST HIS WAS DEVELOPED IN MID 1960 in the UNITED STATES AND FEW EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (NETHERLANDS, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND) Although SEVERAL HUNDREDS OF HMIS are available in the market VERY FEW COVER ALL THE REQUIREMENTS OF A HOSPITAL OR PROVIDE ADEQUATE INTEGRATION WITH THE LARGE HEALTHCARE NETWORK. The DIVERSITY OF TASK TO BE PERFORMED, THE PLAYERS INVOLVED, THE EXISTING ORGANIZATION, THE TECHNICAL POSSIBILITIES EXPLAIN THE SITUATION MAKES HIS MORE COMPLEX BUT NOT IMPOSSIBLE.

HOW DID IT EVOLVED.


GENERATION 1 BILLING GENERATION 2- BILLING +RECORD KEEPING GENERATION 3- BILLING +RECORD KEEPING +ADMINISTRATION GENERATION 4-INTEGRATED HIS

HOW DID IT EVOLVED.

GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4