Masreen Naslony

History of Language Teaching
The Grammar Translation Method based on no theory / method Principal characteristics :
– learn a language to read it – analysis of grammar rules – translation of texts / sentences – focus on reading and writing

The Grammar Translation Method

“The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language.”
(Stern, 1983:455)

The Reform Movement
The International Phonetic Association (IPA) founded in 1886 Linguists set forth principles for the development of teaching method
– – – – – C. Marcel (1793 – 1896) T. Prendergast (1806 – 1886) F. Gouin (1831 – 1896) Henry Sweet (1845 – 1912) Wilhelm Vietor (1850 – 1918)

The Direct Method
Based on the foundation of the Natural Method… intensive oral interaction in the target language…, L. Sauveur (1826 – 1907) Maximillian Berlitz – commercial language schools – TDM aka Berlitz Method

Edward Anthony (1963)

- a set of related assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning - an approach is axiomatic (self evident/do not require explanation)
- an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach - it is procedural – within one approach, there can be many methods - it is what takes place in the classroom - a particular trick, stratagem or contrivance (mechanical device) used to accomplish an immediate objective – consistent with method and in harmony with an approach



Richards & Rodgers (1986)





“an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice” APPROACH
a. Theory of the nature of language b. Theory of the nature of PROCEDURE language learning a. Classroom techniques, practices and behaviours observed when the method is used

a. b. c. d. e. f. Objectives Syllabus Activities Learner roles Teacher roles Role of instructional materials

Theory of Language
Structural View Most traditional Language is a system Target of language learning is to master the system Phonological units, grammatical units, grammatical operations and lexical (words/vocab) items Audiolingual Method, Total Physical Response, Silent Way Language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning Semantic (meanings of words) and communication dimension Communicative approaches Language as the tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations Interaction analysis, conversation analysis, and ethnomethodology (the way people interact) Functional View Interactional View

Theory of Language Learning
Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism

References 1. Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, 2nd Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman 2. Harmer, J. (2007). The Practise of English Language Teaching, 4th Edition. Essex: Pearson 3. Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. (1991). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A description and analysis. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press 4. Scheidt, S. (2009). A Visual Representation on Theories of Learning.

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