SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW; SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
‡ Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries ‡ Main objective of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse environmental effects caused by the indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes, especially of hazardous wastes But, solid waste management is given a very low priority in these countries.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ‡ As a result. very limited funds are provided to the solid waste management sector by the governments.OVERVIEW. and the levels of services required for protection of public health and the environment are not attained ‡ In Malaysia there are two main bodies responsible for this issues that is Department of National Solid Waste Management and Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation. .

MATERIALS FLOW IN SOCIETY .

products & recovered materials Waste material Raw material Residual debris Manufacturing Residual waste material Processing & Recovery Secondary manufacturing Consumer Final disposal Generalized flow of materials and the generation of solid wastes in society .Raw materials.

REDUCTION IN RAW MATERIAL WASTE .

‡ To reduce the cost of managing the fresh raw material into the pant. ‡ To maintain the sustainability of the environment and raw material for the future generations.WHY? ‡ Minimize the environmental effects caused by disposal of solid waste. .

‡ To reduce the usage of raw material. . the amount of solid waste must be reduce by reuse and recovered the solid waste for the next production of product.CONSERVATION OF MASS ‡ The input mass of the process must equal to the output.

the demand of steel is decreased therefore the usage of raw material is decreased hence the production of the waste material is decreased.EXAMPLE The American cars at 1984 are averagely 20% smaller in size than the car that have been released in late 1950s and early 1960s ‡ by reducing the size. .

EFFECTS ‡ Reducing the jobs opportunities for the workers that works related to the industries. ‡ Reduce the demands of the raw material led to the decreasing of the profit of the particular industries. .

REDUCTION IN SOLIDWASTE QUANTITIES .

. Reduce the amount of material used in the manufacture of the products. 2. Reduce the amount of the material used in the packaging and marketing of goods. 3. Increased the useful life of a products.HOW? 1.

‡ Lost revenue for what could have been a product instead of waste ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .REDUCE SOLID WASTE QUANTITIES Save disposal cost Reduce inefficient energy use cost Reduce the purchased cost of raw materials Save the time spent on the waste management.

REUSE OF SOLID WASTE MATERIALS .

productive item. ‡ Businesses can save significant dollars in disposal by reselling or donating items that are no longer needed.‡ Reusing an item means that it continues to be a valuable. useful. . and replaces new items that would utilize more energy and other limited natural resources.

. ‡ This method of "materials exchange" results in disposal savings by the generating company. and saving in the purchase of the material by the recipient organization. can be used in other applications by other organizations.‡ Many chemicals and solvents that are no longer useful to one organization.

‡ Donate old clothes and miscellaneous items to a shelter or charity instead of throwing them away.SOME TIPS FOR REUSE FOR CONSUMERS ‡ Take a reusable cloth bag to the grocery store. ‡ Have a garage sale. refurbish. and sell or donate used furniture. ‡ Take your own mug to the coffee shop instead of getting a disposable cup there. . Repair.

furniture. ‡ Buy rechargeable toner cartridges so that they can be reused and use paper that has already been printed on one side in your printer and copy machine. books. and supplies to nonprofit organizations or schools. ‡ Donate unwanted equipment.SOME TIPS FOR REUSE FOR ORGANIZATION ‡ Create a "reuse center" in your building where old office supplies. etc. magazines. can be reused. .

clothing.BENEFITS OF REUSE OF SOLID WASTE IN MALAYSIA ‡ Community Benefits Reuse continues to provide an excellent way in which to get people the food. business equipment. medical supplies and other items that they desperately need. . building materials.

many reuse programs in a community are operated by charitable organizations as a means of providing items to low-income. ‡ SUPPORTS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT GOAL In addition to making a positive contribution to the reduction of solid waste. . there is less burden on the economy. instead of creating new products from virgin materials.‡ ECONOMIC BENEFITS When reusing materials.

MATERIALS RECOVERY .

‡ Recycling is popular among citizens and having a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) will benefit a recycling program since recyclables processed through MRFs are more marketable. recycling has become an attractive and cost effective alternative to land filling. cleaner and may increase revenues returned to the recycling program.‡ As solid waste disposal costs continue to rise. .

‡ MRFs serve as an intermediate processing step between the collection of recyclable materials from waste generators and the sale of recyclable materials to markets for use in making new products. .

General view of MRF process .

mixed paper and containers into separate streams. cardboard and plastic bags and toss them into bins.5 Steps to Materials Recovery Facility ‡ Step 1 As incoming material moves along a conveyer belt. Unusable trash is thrown away. ‡ Step 2 The recyclables move into a double-deck screening machine that separates newspapers. . workers pull out large items.

Workers sort glass and plastics. and heavier glass falls onto another.‡ Step 3 Workers again pull out any trash and discard it. where a powerful fan blows lightweight aluminum and plastic onto one conveyer. . ‡ Step 4 Then it's on to the air classifier.

pamphlets and magazines .‡ Step 5 An electromagnetic device diverts aluminum cans into a storage bin. These materials are separated in the process:-Plastics -Aluminum and ferrous metal cans -Newspapers.

ENERGY RECOVERY .

.‡ Most of the energy in organic materials can be extracted and reused ‡ water-wall incinerators.

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DAY-TO-DAY SOLIDWASTE MANAGEMENT .

Storage Collection Transport Processes Disposal .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rating solid waste generated.

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CONCLUSION .

and the needs of waste workers ‡ Promote recycling industries and enterprises.SUMMARY There are four main ways that can enhance waste reduction: ‡ Inform citizens about source separation and recycling. ‡ Divert organics. ‡ Advocate key areas for waste reduction at the manufacturing .

SUMMARY ‡ Finally. Sometimes back to the basic is more better. any effort to reduce wastes either through waste minimisation or recycling should be planned properly. ‡ Solid waste management in Malaysia has a long way to go and this does not mean that we have to switch to sophisticated systems because they are not necessarily more effective and efficient. .