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Task, Conditions, and Standards

Task: Apply fundimentals of advanced marksmanship. Conditions: Given a classroom enviornment, properly identify fundimentals of Advanced marksmanship. Standard: Learn Advanced marksmanship. Apply proper fundimentals of marksmanship to effectively engage targets up to 600 meters. Risk assessment: The overall risk assesment is low, we are in a air conditioned classroom, so heat is not an issue. If your tired stand up. Drink water. In the event of a fire, exit through the nearest emergency exit and leadership will get accountability. In the event of bad weather, we will remain here. References: AR 3-22-9

M4 Advanced Marksmanship Training

Weapons Maintenance
Things Youll Need: A barber's brush or half-inch paint brush Clean rags Cotton swabs Tooth brush Barrel rods Barrel brush Barrel swabs M4 approved gun oil(CLP, Break Free, Hoppes Gun Cleaner)

Weapons Maintenance Cleaning and Inspection: A weapon can fail to fire or become sluggish in operation because of overly dirty, broken or worn parts.

Weapons Maintenance
Clear the rifle in a safe direction and disassemble the rifle. Clean the barrel, chamber and upper receiver; pay special attention to the star chamber. Use spray solvent to remove debris. Dry the barrel when finished and before firing. Clean the lower receiver; check for foreign materials in trigger group Clean the bolt carrier; insure there is no carbon build-up. Clean the bolt and insure there is no carbon build-up on the end of the bolt. Clean the extractor and insure there no carbon build-up on the extractor groove.
Clean the buffer tube, buffer and buffer spring. Inspect the gas rings for excessive wear; visually inspect their size by comparing them to the rings from another rifle. Insure the slots on the three rings are not aligned. If they are aligned, gas can bleed off resulting in a failure to fully cycle. Inspect the ejector to insure the spring works properly and no foreign matter is present. Use empty shell casing to see if it functions properly. Inspect the extractor by dragging the extractor groove corners across the back of the hand to insure edges are sharp. Check extractor groove to insure it is not excessively worn.

Weapons Maintenance
Inspect the extractor spring for height and excessive wear. The rubber buffer should be present inside the spring. Check the buffer spring for size by comparing it to the springs in other rifles. If it is too short or worn out, replace it. Check the feed ramps in the barrel for excessive wear. Clean and check the magazines for damage and excessive wear; look for cracks or bending in the feed lips or bottom plate lips. It is useful to have a small tool kit at the squad or platoon level; will aid in performing user-level inspections and cleaning.

Oil and lubrication It is important to lubricate the rifle WHY?

Oil and lubrication It is important to lubricate the rifle WHY? Lack of lubrication cause the weapon to perform poorly resulting in a rough trigger, failure to cycle, excessive build-up of residue and undo wear on the rifle parts.

Oil and lubrication It is important not to over-lubricate the rifle. WHY?

Oil and lubrication It is important not to over-lubricate the rifle. WHY? Excess oil collects dirt, can be blown into your face during firing, and can cause hydrostatic pitting in the barrel when firing.

Oil and lubrication

It is important to Prepare Your Rifle for Firing by insuring it is lubricated and has a clean / dry barrel Oil the bolt wear ring, and assemble the bolt and carrier. Place two drops of oil on the charging handle and install. Oil the wear rails on the bolt carrier with a small bead of oil, oil the locking lugs on the bolt, and install the bolt carrier. Lubricate the rear of the trigger with a small spot of weapons grade lithium grease (an un-oiled trigger can almost double the trigger pull). Lubricate the steel of the weapon so it will not rust.

Rigging Why do we attach items to our rifle? Every item attached to the rifle should enhance the rifles performance, it is important to know the purpose and function of each item. Slings: Why?

Weapon lights: Generally mounted on the strong side of the weapon for shooting around obstacles and to avoid the sling; carry spare batteries. Lasers: Mounted on top of the barrel is usually the best option and most efficient for zeroing. Forward Vertical Grip: Mounted as far forward as possible. This will better aid in its use to support/control the rifle as taught in rifle fundamentals. Back-up Iron Sights: Need to be mounted on every rifle; they are a back up until they are a primary

Spare batteries need to be carried (the pistol grip or other suitable location). Trijicon ACOG eye relief is 1 to 1 inch. CCOs should be mounted as far rearward as possible for the widest field of view. Check to insure the CCO is not canted; this will affect zeroing and adjustments.

Mark optics and other add-on items with paint marks so you can easily spot a loose screw or mount.


Cycles of Function Firing: The trigger is pulled releasing the hammer, which hits the firing pin, striking the primer and discharging the rifle. Unlocking: Gas tapped from the barrel through the gas tube is redirected to the bolt carrier key. This pushes the carrier to the rear, and unlocks the bolt from the barrel extension via the cam pin moving in the carrier cam surface. Extracting:The rim of the expended cartridge case is grasped by the claw on the extractor on one side, while pressure is exerted on the opposite side of the case by the ejector. With this, the case is pulled from the chamber. Ejecting: Once the case is extracted and clears the barrel extension, the ejector forcefully pushes the case, as the extractor continues to pull it to the rear. This push-pull of the ejector-extractor expels the case from the rifle.

Cycles of Function Continue. Cocking: The bolt and bolt carrier moving to the rear, cocks the hammer via the underside of the rear of the carrier. Feeding: The bolt and bolt carrier, after moving fully to the rear, comes forward (counter recoil), and strips a fresh cartridge from the feed lips of the magazine. Chambering: After stripping a fresh cartridge, the bolt and carrier continue forward pushing the cartridge up the feed ramps and into the chamber. Locking: The pressure of the action spring push the carrier completely forward, and the cam surface engages the cam pin, turning the bolt, locking it into the barrel extension, and snapping the extractor around the case rim.

What are the most common types of malfunctions? Failure to Cycle resulting in any of the following malfunctions. Failure to Fire resulting in a Squeeze / Click on a live round with the bolt forward. Failure to Extract resulting in a live round jammed behind a spent cartridge that remained lodged in the chamber and the bolt partially to the rear. Failure to Eject resulting in a spent cartridge and a live round jammed in the receiver with the bolt partially to the rear.

Failure to Eject resulting in a Bolt Override a spent cartridge jammed between the charging handle and the top of the bolt with the bolt partially to the rear. Pressure from the buffer spring presses the bolt forward onto the spent cartridge, which is pushed into the forward portion of the charging handle. If you pull back on the charging handle, the bolt carrier group, the spent cartridge and the charging handle move to the rear as a group. Generally, the bolt will not lock to the rear and can only be pulled to the rear a short distance. Failure to Feed resulting in a Squeeze / Click on an empty chamber with the bolt forward. Failure to Feed resulting in a Double Feed two live rounds jammed in the receiver with the bolt partially to the rear.

What are our actions when we detect a malfunction?
Slap the Magazine Pull charging handle to the rear Observe ejection of round (if weapon fails to eject round, immediately seek remedial action. Release the charging handle; do not ride it forward. Tap the forward assist assembly to ensure the bolt closes. Squeeze the trigger and try to fire the rifle

Load Procedures
a. Point the carbine muzzle in a safe direction. b. Cock the carbine (this also opens the bolt). c. Place the selector lever on SAFE. d. Open the bolt and check the chamber to ensure it is clear. e. Insert the magazine, pushing it upward until the magazine catch f.Tap upward on the bottom of the magazine to ensure that it is seated. g. Chamber a round. h. Place the selector lever on the desired mode of fire. i. If the weapon is not to be fired immediately, place selector lever on SAFE and close the ejection port cover.

Unload Procedures
1. Remove the magazine.
a. Point the rifle muzzle in a safe direction. b. Place the selector lever on SAFE (if the weapon is not cocked, you cannot place the selector lever on SAFE). c. Remove the magazine from the rifle.

2. Remove ammunition.
a. Lock the bolt open and return the charging handle forward. b. Check the receiver and chamber for ammunition. Remove any ammunition present. c. Press the bottom of the bolt catch, allowing the bolt to go forward. d. Place the selector lever on SAFE.

Rifle Marksmanship
U.S. Army does not advocate any rifle fire other than wellaimed, deliberate fire. Repeated combat experience has demonstrated that a single, well-aimed, rapidly fired shot is by far, more effective than numerous rounds, rapidly fire in the direction of the enemy. As the saying goes, You cannot miss fast enough. Advanced rifle marksmanship is nothing more than mastering the basics of well-aimed, deliberate fire. If you master your ability (potential) for rapid, aimed fire in training, you will be able to fire accurately and as fast as you need to in combat.

Rifle Marksmanship
The background components of rifle marksmanship (or for that matter, any task) are the answers to a few reasonably selected questions that define the task. For rifle marksmanship, we will use the following questions. 1. What type of rifle marksmanship are we concern with and how does assault rifle marksmanship differ from other types? 2. What are we trying to accomplish with assault rifle fire? 3. What are the capabilities of the rifle? 4. What is the primary factor that affects the strike of the round? 5. What are our goals in manipulating the rifle? 6. What are the fundamentals of Rifle Marksmanship and how do they assist us?

Rifle Marksmanship What are the fundamentals of Rifle Marksmanship and how do they assist us? Steady Position Aiming Breath Control Trigger Squeeze [Follow Through] this one is added to address what concerns or issues?

Rifle Marksmanship

Steady Position
Natural Point of Aim Square to the Target Extended Stock Rifle Butt Position Non-firing Hand Firing Handgrip Firing Elbow Placement Non-firing Elbow Cheek-to-Stock Weld Support (Mag on ground) Muscle Relaxation

Rifle Marksmanship Aiming

Sight Alignment Iron sight or optical / reticle Focus of the Eye Iron sight or optical / reticle Sight Picture Front Sight

Rifle Marksmanship

Breath Control
Natural Respiratory Pause Stop Breathing verses Holding Breathe

Rifle Marksmanship

Trigger Squeeze
Trigger Finger Squeeze Dealing with wobble, recoil anticipation and jerking the trigger Hold Leads into Follow Through Reset

Rifle Marksmanship [Follow Through]

Evaluate the Shot Evaluate the Situation Prepare for Follow-on Shots

Rifle Marksmanship

Maintaining Center Mass Aim (200m Zero)

Crotch Level Aim (300m Zero)

Aim Center Mass

200 Meter Zero, target at 300 Meters 25 meter zero, target at 300 Meters


10 Low

Rifle Marksmanship The trigger pullers will close and destroy enemy, usually from within 100-200 meters Still a need for Long Range Marksman/Squad Designated Sniper, for support and SKTs.



Positions Prone

Mag on ground

(a) Kneel on your right knee while facing the target, with your left hand on the magazine and your right grasping the rifle' s pistol grip. (b) Place your left foot about .45 meter (18 inches) to your left front, with your toes pointing in the general direction of the target. (c) Keeping your right toe in place, sit on your right heel. (d) Place your left elbow forward of your left knee, resting the flat portion of your upper arm on your knee. (e) Move the rifle butt into the pocket of your right shoulder, pulling the rifle pistol grip with your right hand. (f) With your left hand on the rifle magazine, place your left forefinger in the trigger guard of the grenade launcher. (g) Pull the rifle firmly into your shoulder. (h) Pull your right elbow in close to your body to help you apply rearward pressure to the weapon.




2 Difference


2 Difference HUMMV Lift Hook

Night fire
Mounting/sight adjustments zeroing techniques Grouping

Night Firing
Safety: Aiming lasers can permanently damage or blind the human eye. For this reason, precautions are taken to insure the laser is never pointed at an individual that is not an enemy combatant.
If the laser must be pointed at an individual for security reasons (civilian or enemy combatant), caution is taken to insure the laser is not pointed at the individuals face. A laser is never intentionally pointed at the face of any individual. Treat all lasers as loaded weapons; do not point lasers at anyone or anything unless you intend to engage. Ensure the laser is off when not in use and consider removing the batteries for longer periods of storage.

AN/PEQ-2 There are two adjustable lasers on the PEQ2; the right side laser is an aiming laser with a Low and High setting, the left side laser is a variable illuminator with a Low and High setting. Locking screw - ensure the screw is tight and mark with a paint pen so you can make a quick reference to ensure that it has not come lose.

Lens caps or diffusers - These caps protect the lens of the laser from dust and other objects. There are different lens covers that offer shapes for the laser as well. Batteries and battery caps - the PEQ2 uses 2 AA batteries, maker sure that the caps are tight. If the PEQ2 is stored with the batteries in, it will reduce the spring tension, this cause the laser to turn off after every shot. On/Off Push Button - push one time and the laser will turn on for approximately 3 seconds and then turn off. Push the button 2 times consecutively and it will stay on continuous. All adjustments are 1 MOA.

OFF - The AN/PEQ-2A will not operate. AIM LO - The aiming beam operates at low power. Low power is useful to reduce night vision device blooming of the aiming spot on close targets. It is also useful for training because the beam power meets the criteria of an eye-safe laser. DUAL LO - The Aiming beam operates at low power and the illuminating beam operates at low power. Low power aiming and illuminating is useful to reduce the effects of blooming when engaging targets at close range.

AIM HI - The aiming beam operates at high power. Hi power is useful for aiming or pointing at distant targets. DUAL LO/HI - The aiming beam operates at low power and the illumination beam operates at full power. The DUAL mode enables a target to be illuminated and fired upon using an aiming beam. DUAL HI/HI - The aiming beam operates at high power and the illumination beam operates at full power.

Co-Witness This technique is a field expedient method of zero that can only be done if the weapon; with optic, is zeroed. This method of zero will give point of aim, point of impact at the desired zeroed distance. If the weapon and optic has a zero at 200m then the laser will be point of point of impact at 200m. (Remember the effectiveness of the NVGs and the most likely engagement distance in theater)

Co-Witness This process only takes a few seconds; with NVGs on, look through the optic turning the brightness down so it is visible, turn the laser on and locate the laser through the optic, move the laser up/down and/or left/right until it sits directly on top of the red dot of the optic. This needs to be done out to distance. All you need is a definitive aiming point allowing you to hold so the laser can be moved to the optic.

Co-Witness Simply put, you will make your laser point at the same thing as your daytime optic. Battle buddy system is the best way to do this.

Monocular night vision devise that be worn over either non-firing or firing eye. If worn over non-firing eye, this will provide the ability to use the red dot optic in a lighted area with out having to flip the 14s up and out of the way. Worn over the firing eye, this will provide the possibility to look through the 14s and the optic at the same time to engage targets without a laser.

The 14s have 2 focus rings: one closest to the eye is use to set the focus to the strength the eye based on the individuals vision. The second focus ring is for range or depth of visibility. To focus the ANPVS 14, it will take some minor adjustments to find the clearest field of view. The small knob on the front of the PVS14 is the gain. This controls the brightness of the tube itself.