Chapter 9: Differential Analysis of

Fluid Flow
Chao-Lung Ting
Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering
National Taiwan University
Fall 2005
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 2
Objectives
1. Understand how the differential
equations of mass and momentum
conservation are derived.
2. Calculate the stream function and
pressure field, and plot streamlines for a
known velocity field.
3. Obtain analytical solutions of the
equations of motion for simple flows.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Introduction
Recall
Chap 5: Control volume (CV) versions of the laws of
conservation of mass and energy
Chap 6: CV version of the conservation of momentum
CV, or integral, forms of equations are useful for
determining overall effects
However, we cannot obtain detailed knowledge about
the flow field inside the CV ÷motivation for differential
analysis
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Introduction
Example: incompressible Navier-Stokes
equations
We will learn:
Physical meaning of each term
How to derive
How to solve
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Introduction
For example, how to solve?
Step Analytical Fluid Dynamics
(Chapter 9)
Computational Fluid Dynamics
(Chapter 15)
1 Setup Problem and geometry, identify all dimensions and
parameters
2 List all assumptions, approximations, simplifications, boundary
conditions
3 Simplify PDE¶s Build grid / discretize PDE¶s
4 Integrate equations Solve algebraic system of
equations including I.C.¶s and
B.C¶s
5 Apply I.C.¶s and B.C.¶s to solve
for constants of integration
6 Verify and plot results Verify and plot results
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Recall CV form (Chap 5) from Reynolds
Transport Theorem (RTT)
We¶ll examine two methods to derive
differential form of conservation of mass
Divergence (Gauss¶s) Theorem
Differential CV and Taylor series expansions
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Divergence Theorem
Divergence theorem allows us to
transform a volume integral of the
divergence of a vector into an area integral
over the surface that defines the volume.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Divergence Theorem
Rewrite conservation of mass
Using divergence theorem, replace area integral
with volume integral and collect terms
Integral holds for ANY CV, therefore:
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Differential CV and Taylor series
First, define an
infinitesimal control
volume dx x dy x dz
Next, we approximate the
mass flow rate into or out
of each of the 6 faces
using Taylor series
expansions around the
center point, e.g., at the
right face
Ignore terms higher than order dx
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Differential CV and Taylor series
Infinitesimal control volume
of dimensions dx, dy, dz
Area of right
face = dy dz
Mass flow rate through
the right face of the
control volume
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Differential CV and Taylor series
Now, sum up the mass flow rates into and out of
the 6 faces of the CV
Plug into integral conservation of mass equation
Net mass flow rate into CV:
Net mass flow rate out of CV:
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Differential CV and Taylor series
After substitution,
Dividing through by volume dxdydz
Or, if we apply the definition of the divergence of a vector
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Alternative form
Use product rule on divergence term
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Cylindrical coordinates
There are many problems which are simpler to solve if
the equations are written in cylindrical-polar coordinates
Easiest way to convert from Cartesian is to use vector
form and definition of divergence operator in cylindrical
coordinates
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Cylindrical coordinates
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Special Cases
Steady compressible flow
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
Special Cases
Incompressible flow
Cartesian
Cylindrical
and p = constant
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Mass
In general, continuity equation cannot be
used by itself to solve for flow field,
however it can be used to
1. Determine if velocity field is incompressible
2. Find missing velocity component
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±4: Finding a Missing
Velocity Component
Two velocity components of a steady, incompressible,
three-dimensional flow field are known, namely, u = ax
2
+ by
2
+ cz
2
and w = axz + byz
2
, where a, b, and c are
constants. The y velocity component is missing.
Generate an expression for v as a function of x, y, and z.
Solution:
Therefore,
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±5: Two-Dimensional,
Incompressible, Vortical Flow
Consider a two-dimensional, incompressible flow in
cylindrical coordinates; the tangential velocity component
is u
¿
= K/r, where K is a constant. This represents a class
of vortical flows. Generate an expression for the other
velocity component, u
r
.
Solution: The incompressible continuity equation for this
two dimensional case simplifies to
÷
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±5: Two-Dimensional,
Incompressible, Vortical Flow
Line Vortex
A spiraling line vortex/sink flow
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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The Stream Function
Consider the continuity equation for an
incompressible 2D flow
Substituting the clever transformation
Gives
This is true for any smooth
function ¡(x,y)
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The Stream Function
Why do this?
Single variable ¡ replaces (u,v). Once ¡ is
known, (u,v) can be computed.
Physical significance
1. Curves of constant ¡ are streamlines of the flow
2. Difference in ¡ between streamlines is equal to
volume flow rate between streamlines
3. The value of ¡ increases to the left of the
direction of flow in the xy-plane, ³left-side
convention.´
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The Stream Function
Physical Significance
Recall from Chap. 4 that
along a streamline
Change in ¡ along
streamline is zero
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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The Stream Function
Physical Significance
Difference in ¡ between
streamlines is equal to
volume flow rate between
streamlines (Proof on
black board)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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The Stream Function in Cylindrical
Coordinates
Incompressible, planar
stream function in
cylindrical coordinates:
For incompressible
axisymmetric flow, the
continuity equation is
÷
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±12 Stream Function in
Cylindrical Coordinates
Consider a line vortex,
defined as steady, planar,
incompressible flow in
which the velocity
components are u
r
= 0
and u
¿
= K/r, where K is a
constant. Derive an
expression for the stream
function ¡ (r, ¿), and prove
that the streamlines are
circles.
Line Vortex
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±12 Stream Function in
Cylindrical Coordinates
Solution:
÷
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Linear Momentum
Recall CV form from Chap. 6
Using the divergence theorem to convert area
integrals
Body
Force
Surface
Force
o
ij
= stress tensor
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Linear Momentum
Substituting volume integrals gives,
Recognizing that this holds for any CV,
the integral may be dropped
This is Cauchy¶s Equation
Can also be derived using infinitesimal CV and Newton¶s 2nd Law (see text)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Linear Momentum
Alternate form of the Cauchy Equation can be
derived by introducing
Inserting these into Cauchy Equation and
rearranging gives
(Chain Rule)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Conservation of Linear Momentum
Unfortunately, this equation is not very
useful
10 unknowns
Stress tensor, o
ij
: 6 independent components
Density p
Velocity, V : 3 independent components
4 equations (continuity + momentum)
6 more equations required to close problem!
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
First step is to separate o
ij
into pressure and
viscous stresses
Situation not yet improved
6 unknowns in o
ij
÷ 6 unknowns in t
ij
+ 1 in P,
which means that we¶ve added 1!
o
ij
=
o
xx
o
xy
o
xz
o
yx
o
yy
o
yz
o
zx
o
zy
o
zz

'



+
'
¦
¦
¦
=
p 0 0
0 p 0
0 0 p

'



+
'
¦
¦
¦
+
t
xx
t
xy
t
xz
t
yx
t
yy
t
yz
t
zx
t
zy
t
zz

'



+
'
¦
¦
¦
Viscous (Deviatoric)
Stress Tensor
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
(toothpaste)
(paint)
(quicksand)
Reduction in the
number of variables is
achieved by relating
shear stress to strain-
rate tensor.
For Newtonian fluid
with constant
properties
Newtonian fluid includes most common
fluids: air, other gases, water, gasoline
Newtonian closure is analogous
to Hooke¶s Law for elastic solids
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
Substituting Newtonian closure into stress
tensor gives
Using the definition of
ij
(Chapter 4)
-
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
Substituting o
ij
into Cauchy¶s equation gives the
Navier-Stokes equations
This results in a closed system of equations!
4 equations (continuity and momentum equations)
4 unknowns (U, V, W, p)
Incompressible NSE
written in vector form
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
In addition to vector form, incompressible
N-S equation can be written in several
other forms
Cartesian coordinates
Cylindrical coordinates
Tensor notation
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
Cartesian Coordinates
Continuity
X-momentum
Y-momentum
Z-momentum
See page 431 for equations in cylindrical coordinates
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Navier-Stokes Equation
Tensor and Vector Notation
Continuity
Conservation of Momentum
Tensor notation
Vector notation
Vector notation
Tensor notation
Tensor and Vector notation offer a more compact form of the equations.
Repeated indices are summed over j
(x
1
= x, x
2
= y, x
3
= z, U
1
= U, U
2
= V, U
3
= W)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems
Now that we have a set of governing
partial differential equations, there are 2
problems we can solve
1. Calculate pressure (P) for a known velocity
field
2. Calculate velocity (U, V, W) and pressure (P)
for known geometry, boundary conditions
(BC), and initial conditions (IC)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field
in Cartesian Coordinates
Consider the steady, two-dimensional, incompressible
velocity field, namely, .
Calculate the pressure as a function of x and y.
Solution: Check continuity equation,
Consider the y-component of the Navier±Stokes equation:
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field
in Cartesian Coordinates
The y-momentum equation reduces to
In similar fashion, the x-momentum equation reduces to
Pressure field from y-momentum:
÷
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field
in Cartesian Coordinates
Then we can get
Such that
Will the C
1
in the equation affect the velocity field? No.
The velocity field in an incompressible flow is not
affected by the absolute magnitude of pressure, but only
by pressure differences.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field
in Cartesian Coordinates
From the Navier-Stokes equation, we know the velocity
field is affected by pressure gradient.
In order to determine that constant (C
1
in Example 9±13),
we must measure (or otherwise obtain) P somewhere in
the flow field. In other words, we require a pressure
boundary condition. Please see the CFD results on the
next page.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field
in Cartesian Coordinates
Two cases are identical except for the pressure condition. The results of
the velocity fields and streamline patterns confirm that the velocity field
is affected by pressure gradient.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Exact Solutions of the NSE
Solutions can also be
classified by type or
geometry
1. Couette shear flows
2. Steady duct/pipe flows
3. Unsteady duct/pipe flows
4. Flows with moving
boundaries
5. Similarity solutions
6. Asymptotic suction flows
7. Wind-driven Ekman flows
There are about 80
known exact solutions
to the NSE
The can be classified
as:
Linear solutions
where the convective
term is zero
Nonlinear solutions
where convective
term is not zero
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Exact Solutions of the NSE
1.Set up the problem and geometry, identifying all
relevant dimensions and parameters
2.List all appropriate assumptions, approximations,
simplifications, and boundary conditions
3.Simplify the differential equations as much as
possible
4.Integrate the equations
5.Apply BC to solve for constants of integration
6.Verify results
Procedure for solving continuity and NSE
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Boundary conditions
Boundary conditions are critical to exact,
approximate, and computational solutions.
Discussed in Chapters 9 & 15
BC¶s used in analytical solutions are discussed here
No-slip boundary condition
Interface boundary condition
These are used in CFD as well, plus there are some
BC¶s which arise due to specific issues in CFD
modeling. These will be presented in Chap. 15.
Inflow and outflow boundary conditions
Symmetry and periodic boundary conditions
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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No-slip boundary condition
For a fluid in contact
with a solid wall, the
velocity of the fluid
must equal that of the
wall
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Interface boundary condition
When two fluids meet at
an interface, the velocity
and shear stress must be
the same on both sides
If surface tension effects
are negligible and the
surface is nearly flat
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Interface boundary condition
Degenerate case of the interface BC occurs at the free
surface of a liquid.
Same conditions hold
Since µ
air
<< µ
water
,
As with general interfaces, if surface
tension effects are negligible and the
surface is nearly flat P
water
= P
air
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
For the given geometry and BC¶s, calculate the velocity
and pressure fields, and estimate the shear force per
unit area acting on the bottom plate
Step 1: Geometry, dimensions, and properties
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 2: Assumptions and BC¶s
Assumptions
1. Plates are infinite in x and z
2. Flow is steady, ¯/¯t = 0
3. Parallel flow, V=0
4. Incompressible, Newtonian, laminar, constant properties
5. No pressure gradient
6. 2D, W=0, ¯/¯z = 0
7. Gravity acts in the -z direction,
Boundary conditions
1. Bottom plate (y=0) : u=0, v=0, w=0
2. Top plate (y=h) : u=V, v=0, w=0
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 3: Simplify
3 6
Note: these numbers refer
to the assumptions on the
previous slide
This means the flow is ³fully developed´
or not changing in the direction of flow
Continuity
X-momentum
2 Cont. 3 6 5 7
Cont. 6
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 3: Simplify, cont.
Y-momentum
2,3
3 3 3,6 7
3
3
3
Z-momentum
2,6 6
6 6 6
6 6
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 4: Integrate
Z-momentum
X-momentum
integrate integrate
integrate
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 5: Apply BC¶s
y=0, u=0=C
1
(0) + C
2
÷ C
2
= 0
y=h, u=V=C
1
h ÷ C
1
= V/h
This gives
For pressure, no explicit BC, therefore C
3
can remain
an arbitrary constant (recall only \P appears in NSE).
Let p = p
0
at z = 0 (C
3
renamed p
0
)
1. Hydrostatic pressure
2. Pressure acts independently of flow
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Step 6: Verify solution by back-substituting into
differential equations
Given the solution (u,v,w)=(Vy/h, 0, 0)
Continuity is satisfied
0 + 0 + 0 = 0
X-momentum is satisfied
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15)
Fully Developed Couette Flow
Finally, calculate shear force on bottom plate
Shear force per unit area acting on the wall
Note that t
w
is equal and opposite to the
shear stress acting on the fluid t
yx
(Newton¶s third law).
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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Rotational viscometer
An instrument used to
measure viscosity. is
constructed of two concentric
circular cylinders of length
L²a solid, rotating inner
cylinder of radius R
i
and a
hollow, stationary outer
cylinder of radius R
o
.
The gap is small, i.e. (R
o
- R
i
)
<< R
o
.
Find the viscosity of the fluid
in between the cylinders.
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Rotational viscometer
The viscous shear stress acting on a fluid element
adjacent to the inner cylinder is approximately equal to
The total clockwise torque acting on the inner cylinder wall
due to fluid viscosity is
Under steady conditions, the clockwise torque T
viscous
is
balanced by the applied counterclockwise torque T
applied
.
Therefore, viscosity of the fluid:
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±16 Couette Flow with an
Applied Pressure Gradient
The detailed derivation is referred to pages
443 -446 in the text.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Consider steady, incompressible,
parallel, laminar flow of a film of oil
falling slowly down an infinite
vertical wall. The oil film thickness
is h, and gravity acts in the
negative z-direction. There is no
applied (forced) pressure driving
the flow²the oil falls by gravity
alone. Calculate the velocity and
pressure fields in the oil film and
sketch the normalized velocity
profile. You may neglect changes
in the hydrostatic pressure of the
surrounding air.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Solution:
Assumptions
1. Plates are infinite in y and z
2. Flow is steady, ¯/¯t = 0
3. Parallel flow, u=0
4. Incompressible, Newtonian, laminar, constant properties
5. P=P
atm
= constant at free surface and no pressure gradient
6. 2D, v=0, ¯/¯y = 0
7. Gravity acts in the -z direction,
Boundary conditions
1. No slip at wall (x=0) : u=0, v=0, w=0
2. At the free surface (x = h), there is negligible shear, means
¯w/¯x = 0 at x = h.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Step 3: Write out and simplify the differential equations.
Therefore,
Since u = v = 0 everywhere, and gravity does not act in
the x- or y-directions, the x- and y-momentum equations
are satisfied exactly (in fact all terms are zero in both
equations). The z-momentum equation reduces to
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Step 4 Solve the differential equations. (Integrating twice)
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Step 5 Apply boundary conditions.
Velocity field:
Since x < h in the film, w is negative everywhere, as
expected (flow is downward). The pressure field is trivial;
namely, P = P
atm
everywhere.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down
a Vertical Wall by Gravity
Step 6 Verify the results.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Consider steady, incompressible, laminar flow of a
Newtonian fluid in an infinitely long round pipe of radius
R = D/2. We ignore the effects of gravity. A constant
pressure gradient P/x is applied in the x-direction,
where x
1
and x
2
are two
arbitrary locations along
the x-axis, and P
1
and P
2
are the pressures at
those two locations.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Derive an expression for the velocity field inside the pipe
and estimate the viscous shear force per unit surface area
acting on the pipe wall.
Solution:
Assumptions
1. The pipe is infinitely long in the x-direction.
2. Flow is steady, ¯/¯t = 0
3. Parallel flow, u
r
= zero.
4. Incompressible, Newtonian, laminar, constant properties
5. A constant-pressure gradient is applied in the x-direction
6. The velocity field is axisymmetric with no swirl, implying that
u
¿
= 0 and all partial derivatives with respect to ¿ are zero.
7. ignore the effects of gravity.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Solution:
Step 2 List boundary conditions.
(1)at r = R,
(2) at r = 0, du/dr = 0.
Step 3 Write out and simplify the differential equations.
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Solution:
We now simplify the axial momentum equation
Or
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Solution:
In similar fashion, every term in the r-momentum equation
Finally, all terms of the ¿-component of the Navier±Stokes
equation go to zero.
Step 4 Solve the differential equations.
After multiplying both sides of Equation (4) by r, we
integrate once to obtain
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Solution:
Dividing both sides of Eq. 7 by r, we integrate again to get
Step 5 Apply boundary conditions.
Chapter 9: Differential Analysis
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EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in
a Round Pipe ²Poiseuille Flow
Solution:
Finally, the result becomes
Step 6 Verify the results. You can verify that all the
differential equations and boundary conditions are
satisfied.

Objectives
1. Understand how the differential equations of mass and momentum conservation are derived. 2. Calculate the stream function and pressure field, and plot streamlines for a known velocity field. 3. Obtain analytical solutions of the equations of motion for simple flows.

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Chapter 9: Differential Analysis

Introduction
Recall
Chap 5: Control volume (CV) versions of the laws of conservation of mass and energy Chap 6: CV version of the conservation of momentum

CV, or integral, forms of equations are useful for determining overall effects However, we cannot obtain detailed knowledge about the flow field inside the CV   motivation for differential analysis

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3

Chapter 9: Differential Analysis

Introduction Example: incompressible Navier-Stokes equations We will learn: Physical meaning of each term How to derive How to solve ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 4 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

how to solve? Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 Analytical Fluid Dynamics (Chapter 9) Computational Fluid Dynamics (Chapter 15) Setup Problem and geometry. boundary conditions Simplify PDE¶s Integrate equations Build grid / discretize PDE¶s Solve algebraic system of equations including I. simplifications.C.C. identify all dimensions and parameters List all assumptions.¶s and Apply I.¶s to solve B.C.C¶s for constants of integration Verify and plot results 5 Verify and plot results Chapter 9: Differential Analysis ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics .Introduction For example.¶s and B. approximations.

Conservation of Mass Recall CV form (Chap 5) from Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) We¶ll examine two methods to derive differential form of conservation of mass Divergence (Gauss¶s) Theorem Differential CV and Taylor series expansions ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 6 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 7 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Conservation of Mass Divergence Theorem Divergence theorem allows us to transform a volume integral of the divergence of a vector into an area integral over the surface that defines the volume.

therefore: ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 8 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Conservation of Mass Divergence Theorem Rewrite conservation of mass Using divergence theorem. replace area integral with volume integral and collect terms Integral holds for ANY CV.

at the right face Ignore terms higher than order dx ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 9 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . we approximate the mass flow rate into or out of each of the 6 faces using Taylor series expansions around the center point.Conservation of Mass Differential CV and Taylor series First.g. e.. define an infinitesimal control volume dx x dy x dz Next.

Conservation of Mass Differential CV and Taylor series Infinitesimal control volume of dimensions dx. dy. dz Area of right face = dy dz Mass flow rate through the right face of the control volume ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 10 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Mass Differential CV and Taylor series Now. sum up the mass flow rates into and out of the 6 faces of the CV Net mass flow rate into CV: Net mass flow rate out of CV: Plug into integral conservation of mass equation ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 11 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Dividing through by volume dxdydz Or. if we apply the definition of the divergence of a vector ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 12 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Conservation of Mass Differential CV and Taylor series After substitution.

Conservation of Mass Alternative form Use product rule on divergence term ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 13 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Mass Cylindrical coordinates There are many problems which are simpler to solve if the equations are written in cylindrical-polar coordinates Easiest way to convert from Cartesian is to use vector form and definition of divergence operator in cylindrical coordinates ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 14 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Mass Cylindrical coordinates ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 15 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Mass Special Cases Steady compressible flow Cartesian Cylindrical ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 16 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Mass Special Cases Incompressible flow and V = constant Cartesian Cylindrical ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 17 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

however it can be used to 1. continuity equation cannot be used by itself to solve for flow field.Conservation of Mass In general. Find missing velocity component ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 18 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . Determine if velocity field is incompressible 2.

b. y. and z. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 19 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . and c are constants. Generate an expression for v as a function of x. where a. incompressible. u = ax2 + by2 + cz2 and w = axz + byz2. namely. The y velocity component is missing. Solution: Therefore.EXAMPLE 9±4: Finding a Missing Velocity Component Two velocity components of a steady. three-dimensional flow field are known.

This represents a class of vortical flows. where K is a constant. Generate an expression for the other velocity component.EXAMPLE 9±5: Two-Dimensional. ur. Solution: The incompressible continuity equation for this two dimensional case simplifies to   ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 20 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . Incompressible. Vortical Flow Consider a two-dimensional. incompressible flow in cylindrical coordinates. the tangential velocity component is uU = K/r.

EXAMPLE 9±5: Two-Dimensional. Incompressible. Vortical Flow A spiraling line vortex/sink flow ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 21 Line Vortex Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

The Stream Function Consider the continuity equation for an incompressible 2D flow Substituting the clever transformation Gives This is true for any smooth function ](x.y) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 22 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

The Stream Function
Why do this?
Single variable ] replaces (u,v). Once ] is known, (u,v) can be computed. Physical significance
1. Curves of constant ] are streamlines of the flow 2. Difference in ] between streamlines is equal to volume flow rate between streamlines 3. The value of ] increases to the left of the direction of flow in the xy-plane, ³left-side convention.´

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics

23

Chapter 9: Differential Analysis

The Stream Function
Physical Significance Recall from Chap. 4 that along a streamline

@ Change in ] along streamline is zero
ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 24 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis

The Stream Function
Physical Significance

Difference in ] between streamlines is equal to volume flow rate between streamlines (Proof on black board)

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics

25

Chapter 9: Differential Analysis

planar stream function in cylindrical coordinates: For incompressible axisymmetric flow.The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates Incompressible. the continuity equation is   ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 26 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

U). defined as steady. planar. Derive an expression for the stream function ] (r.EXAMPLE 9±12 Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates Consider a line vortex. incompressible flow in which the velocity components are ur = 0 and uU = K/r. Line Vortex ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 27 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . and prove that the streamlines are circles. where K is a constant.

EXAMPLE 9±12 Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates Solution:   ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 28 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Linear Momentum Recall CV form from Chap. 6 Body Force Surface Force Wij = stress tensor Using the divergence theorem to convert area integrals ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 29 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Recognizing that this holds for any CV.Conservation of Linear Momentum Substituting volume integrals gives. the integral may be dropped This is Cauchy¶s Equation Can also be derived using infinitesimal CV and Newton¶s 2nd Law (see text) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 30 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Conservation of Linear Momentum Alternate form of the Cauchy Equation can be derived by introducing (Chain Rule) Inserting these into Cauchy Equation and rearranging gives ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 31 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

V : 3 independent components 4 equations (continuity + momentum) 6 more equations required to close problem! ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 32 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Conservation of Linear Momentum Unfortunately. Wij : 6 independent components Density V Velocity. this equation is not very useful 10 unknowns Stress tensor.

Navier-Stokes Equation First step is to separate Wij into pressure and viscous stresses ¨ xx W xy W xz ¸ ¨ p 0 W  0 ¸ ¨ xx X ¹ © © ¹ © W W ij ! © yx W yy W yz ¹! © 0  p 0 ¹ © yx X ¹ © © ¹ © 0 W X 0  p º ª zx ª zx W zy W zz º ª X xy X yy X zy X xz ¸ ¹ X yz ¹ X zz ¹ º Situation not yet improved Viscous (Deviatoric) Stress Tensor 6 unknowns in Wij   6 unknowns in Xij + 1 in P. which means that we¶ve added 1! ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 33 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

other gases.Navier-Stokes Equation (toothpaste) (paint) (quicksand) Reduction in the number of variables is achieved by relating shear stress to strainrate tensor. water. gasoline ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 34 Newtonian closure is analogous to Hooke¶s Law for elastic solids Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . For Newtonian fluid with constant properties Newtonian fluid includes most common fluids: air.

Navier-Stokes Equation Substituting Newtonian closure into stress tensor gives - Using the definition of ij (Chapter 4) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 35 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

p) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 36 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . V. W.Navier-Stokes Equation Substituting Wij into Cauchy¶s equation gives the Navier-Stokes equations Incompressible NSE written in vector form This results in a closed system of equations! 4 equations (continuity and momentum equations) 4 unknowns (U.

incompressible N-S equation can be written in several other forms Cartesian coordinates Cylindrical coordinates Tensor notation ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 37 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Navier-Stokes Equation In addition to vector form.

Navier-Stokes Equation Cartesian Coordinates Continuity X-momentum Y-momentum Z-momentum See page 431 for equations in cylindrical coordinates ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 38 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

U3 = W) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 39 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Navier-Stokes Equation Tensor and Vector Notation Tensor and Vector notation offer a more compact form of the equations. x2 = y. Continuity Tensor notation Vector notation Conservation of Momentum Tensor notation Vector notation Repeated indices are summed over j (x1 = x. x3 = z. U1 = U. U2 = V.

Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems Now that we have a set of governing partial differential equations. V. there are 2 problems we can solve 1. W) and pressure (P) for known geometry. Calculate pressure (P) for a known velocity field 2. boundary conditions (BC). Calculate velocity (U. and initial conditions (IC) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 40 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

incompressible velocity field. . Solution: Check continuity equation. two-dimensional.EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field in Cartesian Coordinates Consider the steady. Calculate the pressure as a function of x and y. namely. Consider the y-component of the Navier±Stokes equation: ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 41 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

the x-momentum equation reduces to Pressure field from y-momentum:   ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 42 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field in Cartesian Coordinates The y-momentum equation reduces to In similar fashion.

The velocity field in an incompressible flow is not affected by the absolute magnitude of pressure. but only by pressure differences. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 43 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field in Cartesian Coordinates Then we can get Such that Will the C1 in the equation affect the velocity field? No.

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 44 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . we must measure (or otherwise obtain) P somewhere in the flow field. Please see the CFD results on the next page. we require a pressure boundary condition. we know the velocity field is affected by pressure gradient. In other words. In order to determine that constant (C1 in Example 9±13).EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field in Cartesian Coordinates From the Navier-Stokes equation.

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 45 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .EXAMPLE 9±13 Calculating the Pressure Field in Cartesian Coordinates Two cases are identical except for the pressure condition. The results of the velocity fields and streamline patterns confirm that the velocity field is affected by pressure gradient.

Exact Solutions of the NSE There are about 80 known exact solutions to the NSE The can be classified as: Linear solutions where the convective term is zero Nonlinear solutions where convective term is not zero ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 46 Solutions can also be classified by type or geometry 1. 4. 2. 3. Couette shear flows Steady duct/pipe flows Unsteady duct/pipe flows Flows with moving boundaries 5. Wind-driven Ekman flows Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . Similarity solutions 6. Asymptotic suction flows 7.

Integrate the equations 5. and boundary conditions 3.Apply BC to solve for constants of integration 6.Exact Solutions of the NSE Procedure for solving continuity and NSE 1. simplifications.Simplify the differential equations as much as possible 4. identifying all relevant dimensions and parameters 2.List all appropriate assumptions.Set up the problem and geometry. approximations.Verify results ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 47 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

and computational solutions. Inflow and outflow boundary conditions Symmetry and periodic boundary conditions ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 48 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . plus there are some BC¶s which arise due to specific issues in CFD modeling. Discussed in Chapters 9 & 15 BC¶s used in analytical solutions are discussed here No-slip boundary condition Interface boundary condition These are used in CFD as well. These will be presented in Chap.Boundary conditions Boundary conditions are critical to exact. 15. approximate.

the velocity of the fluid must equal that of the wall ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 49 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .No-slip boundary condition For a fluid in contact with a solid wall.

the velocity and shear stress must be the same on both sides If surface tension effects are negligible and the surface is nearly flat ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 50 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Interface boundary condition When two fluids meet at an interface.

Same conditions hold Since Qair << Qwater. As with general interfaces.Interface boundary condition Degenerate case of the interface BC occurs at the free surface of a liquid. if surface tension effects are negligible and the surface is nearly flat Pwater = Pair ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 51 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

and estimate the shear force per unit area acting on the bottom plate Step 1: Geometry.Example exact solution (Ex. and properties ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 52 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . dimensions. 9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow For the given geometry and BC¶s. calculate the velocity and pressure fields.

9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 2: Assumptions and BC¶s Assumptions 1. Newtonian.Example exact solution (Ex. v=0. 7. 5. Boundary conditions 1. x/xt = 0 Parallel flow. V=0 Incompressible. x/xz = 0 Gravity acts in the -z direction. 6. 2. constant properties No pressure gradient 2D. w=0 2. Bottom plate (y=0) : u=0. Top plate (y=h) : u=V. w=0 ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 53 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . 4. 3. laminar. v=0. Plates are infinite in x and z Flow is steady. W=0.

9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 3: Simplify Continuity 3 6 Note: these numbers refer to the assumptions on the previous slide This means the flow is ³fully developed´ or not changing in the direction of flow X-momentum 2 Cont. 6 ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 54 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . 3 6 5 7 Cont.Example exact solution (Ex.

6 7 3 3 3 Z-momentum 2.3 3 3 3. cont. Y-momentum 2.6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 55 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 3: Simplify.

Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 4: Integrate X-momentum integrate integrate Z-momentum integrate ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 56 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

u=V=C1h   C1 = V/h This gives For pressure. no explicit BC.Example exact solution (Ex. u=0=C1(0) + C2   C2 = 0 y=h. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 57 Hydrostatic pressure Pressure acts independently of flow Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . Let p = p0 at z = 0 (C3 renamed p0) 1. therefore C3 can remain an arbitrary constant (recall only “P appears in NSE). 9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 5: Apply BC¶s y=0. 2.

9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Step 6: Verify solution by back-substituting into differential equations Given the solution (u. 0.w)=(Vy/h.v.Example exact solution (Ex. 0) Continuity is satisfied 0+0+0=0 X-momentum is satisfied ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 58 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

calculate shear force on bottom plate Shear force per unit area acting on the wall Note that Xw is equal and opposite to the shear stress acting on the fluid Xyx (Newton¶s third law). ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 59 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Example exact solution (Ex. 9-15) Fully Developed Couette Flow Finally.

The gap is small. i. (Ro .Ri) << Ro. Find the viscosity of the fluid in between the cylinders.Rotational viscometer An instrument used to measure viscosity.e. stationary outer cylinder of radius Ro. rotating inner cylinder of radius Ri and a hollow. is constructed of two concentric circular cylinders of length L² a solid. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 60 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

Therefore. viscosity of the fluid: ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 61 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .Rotational viscometer The viscous shear stress acting on a fluid element adjacent to the inner cylinder is approximately equal to The total clockwise torque acting on the inner cylinder wall due to fluid viscosity is Under steady conditions. the clockwise torque Tviscous is balanced by the applied counterclockwise torque Tapplied.

EXAMPLE 9±16 Couette Flow with an Applied Pressure Gradient The detailed derivation is referred to pages 443 -446 in the text. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 62 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

laminar flow of a film of oil falling slowly down an infinite vertical wall.EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Consider steady. Calculate the velocity and pressure fields in the oil film and sketch the normalized velocity profile. and gravity acts in the negative z-direction. parallel. There is no applied (forced) pressure driving the flow²the oil falls by gravity alone. You may neglect changes in the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding air. The oil film thickness is h. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 63 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . incompressible.

v=0. v=0.EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Solution: Assumptions 1. x/xy = 0 Gravity acts in the -z direction. Plates are infinite in y and z Flow is steady. Newtonian. At the free surface (x = h). there is negligible shear. 7. 6. Boundary conditions 1. u=0 Incompressible. 5. laminar. No slip at wall (x=0) : u=0. w=0 2. 4. 3. means xw/xx = 0 at x = h. constant properties P=Patm = constant at free surface and no pressure gradient 2D. 2. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 64 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . x/xt = 0 Parallel flow.

EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Step 3: Write out and simplify the differential equations.or y-directions. Since u = v = 0 everywhere. The z-momentum equation reduces to ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 65 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . the x. Therefore. and gravity does not act in the x.and y-momentum equations are satisfied exactly (in fact all terms are zero in both equations).

(Integrating twice) ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 66 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Step 4 Solve the differential equations.

The pressure field is trivial. P = Patm everywhere. Velocity field: Since x < h in the film. as expected (flow is downward). ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 67 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . w is negative everywhere. namely.EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Step 5 Apply boundary conditions.

EXAMPLE 9±17 Oil Film Flowing Down a Vertical Wall by Gravity Step 6 Verify the results. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 68 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Consider steady. where x1 and x2 are two arbitrary locations along the x-axis. We ignore the effects of gravity. A constant pressure gradient P/x is applied in the x-direction. incompressible. laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinitely long round pipe of radius R = D/2. and P1 and P2 are the pressures at those two locations. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 69 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

laminar. Incompressible. Flow is steady. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 70 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . implying that uU = 0 and all partial derivatives with respect to U are zero. The velocity field is axisymmetric with no swirl. Newtonian. 2. ignore the effects of gravity. 4. The pipe is infinitely long in the x-direction. ur = zero. Solution: Assumptions 1. x/xt = 0 3. 7. constant properties 5.EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Derive an expression for the velocity field inside the pipe and estimate the viscous shear force per unit surface area acting on the pipe wall. Parallel flow. A constant-pressure gradient is applied in the x-direction 6.

EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Solution: Step 2 List boundary conditions. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 71 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . (1)at r = R. du/dr = 0. (2) at r = 0. Step 3 Write out and simplify the differential equations.

EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Solution: We now simplify the axial momentum equation Or ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 72 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .

we integrate once to obtain ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 73 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . all terms of the U-component of the Navier±Stokes equation go to zero. every term in the r-momentum equation Finally. Step 4 Solve the differential equations. After multiplying both sides of Equation (4) by r.EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Solution: In similar fashion.

we integrate again to get Step 5 Apply boundary conditions.EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Solution: Dividing both sides of Eq. ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 74 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis . 7 by r.

ESOE 505221 Fluid Mechanics 75 Chapter 9: Differential Analysis .EXAMPLE 9±18 Fully Developed Flow in a Round Pipe ² Poiseuille Flow Solution: Finally. the result becomes Step 6 Verify the results. You can verify that all the differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied.

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