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A regime of highway inspections is necessary to identify associated defects, the need for routine/planned maintenance work and unlawful obstruction/interference with the highway. To ensure a consistent Countywide approach a formalised system that prescribes the frequency of inspections and the method of assessment, recording and actioning of highway defects has been adopted.

There are 3 stages in planning the construction of a new road : 1.1. Stage 1 Prepare a preliminary report 1.2. Stage 2 Submit the preliminary report 1.3. Stage 3 Finalize the report


(PROCEDURE) Traffic survaying work Evaluation on the information and planning. Consider suggestion if there is another useful choice Design using 6:1 mile scale Budget of the construction and its advantadges Identify the certain road Report on the alternative road, which include the topography, geology and traffic flow, soil consuming and historical places Obtain cooperation from the related group such as town council and state government If the project is over budgeted the ministry must be inform and no further work shall be proceed

1.2. STAGE 2 SUBMITTING THE PRELIMINARY REPORTof the identified project. Explain about the proposal and its alternatives
Then submitted to the person in charged to obtain permission This following question need to be considered : Are the suggestion fulfilled the planning needs at the national level Are the advantages accepted? Are the suggestion solution accepted in term of political or enviromental aspect. While the preliminary report is being studied further, other experiments should be done such as:a) Further soil investigation b) The plan preparation on the new road and other related roads. Report and work are to be prepared . It will only be submitted if the preliminary report is accepted.


a) When the preliminary is accepted, prepare the road plan with 1:2500 scale b) When the final report is completed, submit it to the head quarter for approval. Here, a right budget and advantages of the project shall be included for approval purpose c) After the costing and advantages valuation are done, this final report will be submitted to the responsible person to start of the construction work d) If there is no protest from the public or other parties in fact, the tender will be offered and the selected contractor. Then all the construction work will start e) If there is a protest, a committee member will be set up for futher investigation


a. b. c. d. e. f. The existence situation which in physical shape and scheme objective of the existence road. The traffic situation - based on the latest data (not more than 3 years) should include content total of traffic user The alternative roads, which include the costing, advantages and the environtmental impact. Road classification identify the road classification that is to be built ; highway or ordinary road Negotiation on the report and the result Budget the total of roadwork cost, bridges work and earthwork approximately 20% from the previous budget. : - site clearing cost - earthwork cost - pavement construction and road shoulder work cost - road furniture work - contingency stretch cost Valuation is to see the economical aspect of the project Enclosed Plan Plan 6 : 1mile scale is used for new scheme. For the city or village area a bigger scale is used..

g. h.

Running a accurate traverse line, usually called the based line along the route help gather all the physical information which might affect this final location of the highway. Important topographical features may also be recorded. These features include swamps, lakes and any other features which affect the final location and design of the highway. All the information collected by preliminary survey work is used in preparing a map, often called the basic plan or preliminary survey plan.


Analysis of dried, ground, sieved soils allows for more convenient sample handling and greater reproducibility of results in comparison with analysis of field-moist soil. The grade line may raised due to any of the following reasons : I . To keep the sub grade above the high ground water level II - To prevent damage to pavement due to surface water and capilary water iii - To maintain the design standard of the highway with respect to the highway with respect to the vertical alignment.


The purpose of the soil investigation were: a. To explore the sub-surface condition of the proposed development area and to provide general data relating to the project. b. To carry out field standard penetration test (S.P.T 63.5 kg hammer having a free fall of 760mm) to determine the natural bearing resistance of the subsoil for the purpose of the design. c. To obtain disturbed and undisturbed soil samples for carrying out the laboratory tests to determine the natural and relevant physical properties of the subsoil pretaining to the site for the purpose of design.

2.1.5. PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF DETERMINING ROAD AND HIGHWAY CARRIAGEWAY congestion, accident and environtment by making a 1. Identify the problem intraffic
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. research on transportion and problematic areas. Identify the maintainance and new constuction work needed. Identify the organization and ministries that are responsible with the construction work such as JKR, TNB etc. Collect the information for briefing. Prepare the Plan Draw a temporary layout sketch and include related suggestion Get information about the area Prepare a detailed layout with consideration to environmental impact Make a Valuation Choose the best road to be constructed . However, the alternative road should be equally prepare in the planning.