ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS

Not much of the heat produced by an engine can be put to use. ‡have incorrect ignition characteristics. (only about 20% in a petrol engine) A poorly cooled engine could : ‡wear badly as the oil is burned away. ‡seize its major components.Some form of cooling system must be used to take excess heat away from the engine. .

There are 2 methods of cooling: Air Cooling Water Cooling .

AIR COOLING .

WATER COOLING .

Water-cooled engines Running throughout the engine are a number of coolant channels called water passages which together make up the water jacket. all the water passages join to form an outlet which is connected to the radiator by a rubber hose called the top hose. At the top of the engine. . The water flows through the hose into the radiator·s top tank.

It then returns to the engine through the bottom hose. Air passing through the core carries away the heat to the atmosphere. flows into the radiator·s bottom tank. The water. .From here. the water passes through to the centre of the radiator (known as the core) where it flows through hundreds of tiny tubes. now cool.

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. Finding the radiator cap Most cars now have a sealed cooling system with an expansion tank to catch any overflow.Radiators High line to low line Up until the mid 1970s the tubes forming the radiator ran vertically. So on many modern cars the radiator has been turned on its side ³ the tubes run horizontally and the tanks are at each end. With the development of sleek low bonnet lines the older style radiators cannot be used because they are too tall. with the radiator tanks at the top and bottom. and the radiator cap may be on the tank rather than on the radiator.

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THIS OPENS THE VALVE .ENGINE COLD: THE WAX PELLET STAYS CONTRACTED KEEPING THE THERMOSTAT CLOSED. ENGINE HOT: THE WAX EXPANDS. FORCING THE DIAPHRAGM AGAINST THE CENTRAL ROD.

on some cars it is turned by the toothed rubber belt that drives the camshaft. . and is most commonly driven by the fan belt from the crankshaft pulley. The pump is usually bolted on to the engine block. Alternatively. The tightness of the fan belt is vital to the correct operation of the pump.The water pump All modern water-cooled cars have a water pump to help the flow of water around the engine.

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a fan is needed to drive air through the radiator core. the airflow through the radiator is more than enough to keep the engine cool. But when traveling around town or when the engine is idling in traffic. The disadvantage with this arrangement is that the fan is being driven all the time the car is moving. . On older cars. and driven from the same belt that turns the water pump (hence the name fan belt). which wastes engine power.The cooling fan When the car is moving. the fan is fixed to the water pump or crankshaft pulley.

This bolts on in the same place as the normal fan and has an automatic temperaturesensitive coupling device built into the centre.Some manufacturers solve this by fitting a ¶ viscous coupled fan·. is to fit a fan powered by an electric motor. Another solution. This is bolted to the bodywork. . and one being adopted by more manufacturers. so increasing the air-flow. When the temperature rises the coupling engages the fan to the water pump. When the radiator is cool the fan freewheels. and is switched on and off by a temperature sensitive switch mounted on the radiator or the engine block.

water is released. The amount of pressure in the system varies from car to car and is determined by the radiator cap. either on to the road. the normal boiling point of water. in a sealed cooling system. or sometimes above. To prevent this the cooling system is kept under pressure to raise the water·s boiling point to a temperature above 100 degrees Centigrade.The pressure cap The running temperature of the engine is close to. The cap has a built-in valve set to ¶blow off· if the pressure in the system rises above a preset safety level. When the valve opens. or. If the water in the system were to boil it could damage the engine. into an expansion (over-flow) tank. .

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