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Pharmaceuticals Catharanthus roseus
Cures: Hodgkin s disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia
Filipendula ulmaria meadowsweet
Has salicylic acid
Combined with acetic acid = aspirin
Sources of the United States Pharmaceuticals 3% 13% 25% >40% organisms Plants Other Microorganisms Animals .
hear.org/Herbs/Herb116.herbmed.htm http://www.org/pier/imagepages/singles/azindp59. repels mosquitoes http://www.Pharmaceuticals Azadirachta indica neem Lowers cholesterol.htm .
causes ergot = abnormal growth on rye Controls hemorrhaging and migraine headaches http://botit.Pharmaceuticals Claviceps purpurea ergonovine Fungus .edu/toms_fungi/oct99.html .wisc.botany.
3 species (wheat.000 other edible plants? . maize. rice) provide 50% of the WORLD S Food versus 30.
purdue.hort.html#Ullucu .edu/newcrop/1492/tubers. adapted to cold climates http://www.Agriculture Ullucus tuberosus ullucu potatopotato-like tubers with edible leaves.
edu/cufo. rapid growth.htm .Agriculture Curcurbita foetidissima Buffalogourd Buffalo Gourd = tuber.agron. adapted to arid land otherwise unusable for conventional crops http://spuds.ksu.
Four angled bean.org/PAGES/PSOPHOCA. Frijol alata Can eat leaves.Agriculture Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Winged bean.leafforlife. pods.HTM#aa10 . Goa bean. seeds Very fast growth = 4 metres in a few weeks http://www.
painetworks.fao. in the 1990s an extremely high level of livestock production was 3.Farming Cultivating the Giant Amazon River turtle can produce 25.000 kg meat/ha In comparison.htm .com/pages/em/em0846.000 kg meat/ha/year Podocnemis expansa http://www.org/ag/AGa/AGAP/FRG/FEEDback/War/u7600b/u7600b04.html http://www.
oats. tomato Andes/Brazil/Paraguay .coconut.peppers. rubber http://pas. cabbage.Chinese cabbages. figs Mediterranean .edu/AgHrt100/vavilovs.byu. pigeonpea TurkeyTurkey-Iran . rice.wheat.cucumbers. potato.maize. eggplant. olives Mexico/Central America . soybean India . sugarcane China .almonds.Nikolai Vavilov's centers of origin: Southeast Asia .htm . barley.
org/publications/percreports/tang_aug1997. http://www.org/Article.com/fe/daily/19990208/fec08011.Biodiversity prospecting is the exploration of wild plants and animals for commercially valuable genetic and biochemical resources.heartland.expressindia.html http://www.cfm?artId=13900 http://www.perc.php?s=2 .
org/wiki/Bioprospecting Bioprospecting is *the collecting of biological samples (plants. Though not granted property upon natural resources.wikipedia.http://en.g. micro-organisms) *the collecting of indigenous knowledge to help discovering genetic or biochemical resources Bioprospection is intended for economic purposes (e. Before 1992. biological resources were considered common heritage of Humankind. . industrial products). biodiversity-rich countries are committed to: *conserve their biodiversity *develop it for sustainable use *share the benefits resulting from their use In short. animals. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. Scientists could take samples from anywhere in the world without any specific permission. new drugs. bioprospection has to be allowed by the biodiversity-rich country and must bring as much benefit to it (and to the communities that traditionally use these resources) than to corporations (usually from developed countries) and universities collecting the bioresource. crops. 1992) establishes sovereign national rights over biological resources.
technologies. royalties) Bioprospection can become a type of biopiracy when these principles are not respected. research. it must respect *informed consent (the source country must know what will be done with the resource.Bioprospecting must follow the new rules of international treaties and national laws. equipments. transfer. More specifically. formation. which benefits will be shared and must give permission for collecting) *fair agreement on benefit sharing (benefits may be. Some even argue bilateral agreements of bioprospection between a country or a community and a corporation are a sort of juridical validation of biopiracy toward traditional communities whose values and rights are not considered and respected. . support for conservation.
html .Improving seeds through experimentation is what people have been up to since the beginning of agriculture.foodfirst.org/media/opeds/2000/4http://www. Because farming methods that depend heavily on chemical fertilizers do not maintain the soil's natural fertility and because pesticides generate resistant pests. pesticides. for the most part. and.org/media/opeds/2000/4-greenrev. but the term "Green Revolution" was coined in the 1960s to highlight a particularly striking breakthrough. Green Revolution = more specialized farming = homogeneity = less biodiversity http://www. for the new seedsseedsaccompanied by chemical fertilizers.foodfirst. the term "revolution" was well deserved. By the 1970s. farmers need ever more fertilizers and pesticides just to achieve the same results. almost 75 percent of Asian rice areas were sown with these new varieties. irrigationirrigation-had replaced the traditional farming practices of millions of Third World farmers. By the 1990s.
Multinational Corporation Definition Economists are not in agreement as to how multinational or transnational corporations should be defined. are good examples. strategy and structural. A firm becomes multinational only when the headquarter or parent company is effectively owned by nationals of two or more countries. etc. controlled by British and Dutch interests.) The following is an excerpt from Franklin Root (International Trade and Investment. very few multinationals are multinational. Multinational corporations have many dimensions and can be viewed from several perspectives (ownership. For example. . 1994) Ownership criterion: some argue that ownership is a key criterion. Shell and Unilever. The ownership of most MNCs are uninational. by ownership test. However. management.
managers of the headquarters are nationals of the home country.Nationality mix of headquarter managers: An international company is multinational if the managers of the parent company are nationals of several countries. Perlmutter. Business Strategy: global profit maximization According to Howard Perlmutter (1969): Multinational companies may pursue policies that are home country-oriented or host country-oriented or world-oriented. pp. This may be a transitional phenomenon." Columbia Journal of World Business. 9-18. *Howard V. "The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation. Very few companies pass this test currently. Usually. 1969. .
Biopiracy http://resurgence.apc.htm .org/articles/kimbrel.gn.
cold hardiness. etc. larger fruit mass. to transform our edible plants into super plants .Genetic Engineering We could use species with disease resistance.
ecologicaleconomics.htm .Ecological economics integrating Ecology and Economics to help develop a sustainable world http://www.org/about/intro.
enn.csa. may be endangering the survival of the very animals people are flocking to see.asp http://www.com/hottopics/ecotour1/overview. http://www.Ecotourism =3rd most important source of income for Rwanda defined as responsible tourism focused on the natural world.html .enn. has emerged as a concept that unites the interests of environmentalists and developers. according to researchers.com/news/2004-03-04/s_13696.com/news/2004-03http://www.
org/wr-98-99/ecoserv. The quality of our drinking water is directly affected by the quality of our catchment areas. The total annual value of the Ecosystem Services in Australia has been estimated by the CSIRO to be $1327 billion http://www.wri. and vegetated water catchments supply much cleaner water to water storages than cleared catchments. For example. So clearing vegetation and polluting the ocean may threaten the very air we breathe. LargeLarge-scale deforestation could cause serious drying of regional climates. Oxygen is provided by plants and algae through photosynthesis. forests can affect entire regional climates because they pump enough water from the soil to the air.Ecosystem Services For example. causing more rainfall.htm http://www.net.org/wr-98http://www. wetlands are increasingly being used to treat sewage effluent.au/factsheets/ecosystem_services.wri.amonline.htm .
3 http://www.1 0.wri.amonline.7 0.org/wr-98-99/ecoserv.3 2.htm http://www.1 3.Ecosystem Services Estimates of Human economic Activities and Ecosystem Services ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUE (trillion $US) Soil formation Recreation Nutrient cycling Water regulation and supply Climate regulation (temperature and precipitation) Habitat Flood and storm protection Food and raw materials production Genetic resources Atmospheric gas balance Pollination All other services Total value of ecosystem services 17.6 33.3 1.org/wr-98http://www.net.8 1.htm .8 0.8 0.wri.4 1.4 1.au/factsheets/ecosystem_services.0 2.
one is the Cost Benefit approach of our monetary based value system.wholehttp://www. and the other is the Safe Minimum Standard which holds each species as irreplaceable and worthy of preservation for its own sake.html http://plato. After testing 6.fi/oppimateriaali/semmat/sust. in 1970 Grassy Stunt devastated rice crops in India and Indonesia.html http://www.1 . For example.stanford.edu/entries/biodiversity/#2. The cost benefit analysis would be quite adequate if all the costs and benefits were included.273 varieties.whole-systems. the resistant gene was found in only one variety discovered in 1966.org/extinctions. Severe famine was averted by the development of a resistant strain. http://hkkk. but many benefits are not known and the potential benefits cannot be known.The benefits of species diversity can be approached from two angles.
ca/hfp/fordev/biodiversity/module01/biodiversity-importance.for.for.gov.ca/hfp/fordev/biodiversity/module01/biodiversityhttp://www. http://www.gov. setting catch limits of a specific lake to ensure continuous opportunities for sport fishing).bc.htm .bc.org/bil/value..e.Option value conserving an element of biodiversity for later use (i.html http://www.iucn.
Biodiversity and Human Health http://ecology.org/biod/index.html .
ca/eng/sct5/index_e.gc.htm http://www.cosewic.mcgill.ca/english/legislation/index.cfm .canadianbiodiversity.http://www.
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