Advanced Biology

Water

Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life
– Water is the biological medium here on Earth – All living organisms require water more than any other substance

Three-quarters of the Earth’s surface is submerged in water The abundance of water is the main reason the Earth is habitable

The polarity of water molecules
– Allows them to form hydrogen bonds with each other – Contributes to the various properties water exhibits

δ– + H + δ– +
Hydrogen bonds H

o
δ–

+ δ–

3.1

Emergent Properties of Water
Cohesion and Adhesion Moderation of Temperature Ice Floats on Water Water is the Solvent of Life

3.2

Cohesion and Adhesion
Cohesion
– Is the bonding of a high percentage of the molecules to neighboring water molecules – Is due to hydrogen bonding

Adhesion
– Is the clinging of one substance to another – Is due to hydrogen bonding

3.3

Moderation of Temperature
Heat
– Is a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion

Temperature
– Measures the intensity of heat

The specific heat of a substance
– Is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of that substance to change its temperature by 1ºC
3.4

Water’s Specific Heat
Water has a high specific heat
– Hydrogen bonds store energy transferred to them as heat – The immense number of hydrogen bonds in water allow it store a LOT of heat – This allows water to minimize temperature fluctuations
3.4

What does this mean to us?
Evaporative cooling – as we sweat heat is released as hydrogen bonds break Oceans stabilize the Earth’s temperature with their ability to store immense amounts of heat
– This has direct effects on the weather (El Nino/La Nina, costal winds etc…)

Ice Floats
Ice is less dense than water
– The hydrogen bonds in ice are more “ordered” than in liquid water, making ice less dense

Hydrogen bonds

Ice
Hydrogen bonds are stable

Liquid water
Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form 3.5

???
H 2 O is cohesive because it readily hydrogen bonds with water molecules around it. Water droplets are, therefore, attracted other droplets such as those in the picture at left.

3.6

???

Water’s ability to become more ordered (and thus expand) as its temperature falls and its hydrogen bonds become more stable makes it less dense than water and able to float.
3.6

???

Oceans store an immense amount of heat in the form of hydrogen bonds. The heat stored around the equator is transferred to the poles by ocean currents. 3.6

Water as a Solvent
The different regions of the polar water molecule can interact with ionic compounds called solutes and dissolve them
Negative oxygen regions of polar water molecules are attracted to sodium cations (Na+).

Na+ +

+ +
+
– –

Na Cl– +

Cl

+

+

+ +
– –

Positive hydrogen regions of water molecules cling to chloride anions (Cl–).

Solutions, solvent and solutes
SOLUTION – a liquid homogeneous mixture made
of solvent and solutes

SOLVENT –
The dissolving agent of the solution (in biology it is usually water)
Cl–

Na+ +

+

SOLUTE –

+ Na +
Cl –

+

The substance dissolved by the solvent (water)
+

+

+ +
– –

3.7

Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic
– philios –Greek for “loving” – phobos –Greek for “fearing”

Hydrophilic substances are attracted to water because they are polar Hydrophobic substances are non-polar and have little affinity for water

3.8

Water Dissociation (separation)
H 2O
(produces)

H

+

+

OH

-

Hydrogen Ion
Concentration:
10
-7

Hydroxide Ion
10 M
-7

M

M = Molar = Moles per liter

3.9

Acids and Bases
Acids – a substance that increases hydrogen ion concentration in solution Bases – a substance that increases the hydroxide ion concentration in solution

H

+ increasing increasing

OH

-

3.10

pH
This scale is used to relate the amount of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in an aqueous (water) solution + pH = - log [H ] + -7 pH 7 = [H ] = [OH ] = 10 Changing pH by 1 is a ten fold change in ion concentration

0 1 Increasingly Acidic [H+] > [OH–] 2 3 4 5 6
Battery acid Digestive (stomach) juice, lemon juice Vinegar, beer, wine, cola Tomato juice Black coffee Rainwater Urine Pure water Human blood Seawater

pH Scale

Neutral [H+] = [OH–]

7 8

Increasingly Basic [H+] < [OH–]

9 10 11 12 13 14
Milk of magnesia Household ammonia Household bleach Oven cleaner

3.10

Buffers
Buffers minimize changes in pH in a + solution by bonding to H or OH ions.

(basic)

H2CO3

When pH rises When pH drops
(acidic)

HCO3-

+

H+

???
Respiratory Alkalosis
– Caused by an inability to exhale CO – Common in COPD (emphysema)

CO2 H2CO3

+

H
(basic)

+

HCO3HCO3+ H+
3.11

When pH rises When pH drops
(acidic)

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