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fuzzy reasoning.Fuzzy Logic and Information Retrieval. . Fuzzy sets. Conclusion. null values. retrieval process. Common objections to fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic in information retrieval. Fuzzy query.

to a number between zero and one. and a degree of one means that the value is completely representative of the set. Fuzzy Logic provides a method of reducing as well as explaining the system complexity The Idea of Fuzzy Sets Fuzzy sets are functions that map a value. which might be a member of a set. indicating its actual degree of membership A degree of zero means that the value is not in the set. Fuzzy Sets (1965).Theory of Fuzzy Logic Lotfi Zadeh introduced the theory of Fuzzy Logic in his paper. .

the characteristic function is of the form Char C(x): U {0. Char C(x). . If U is the universal set form which values of C are taken. then we can represent C as C = { x | x U and Char C(x) = 1} This is the representation for a crisp or non-fuzzy set.1} However for a Fuzzy set A we have Char F(x): U [0. For an ordinary set C. for a fuzzy set the characteristic function takes on all values between 0 and 1 and not just the discrete values 0 or 1.Characteristic Function: Conventionally we can specify a set C by its characteristic function.1] That is.

That is we represent the person is either ³TALL´ or ³NOT TALL´ in Boolean Logic 1 or 0. The membership function is based on the person¶s height. a degree of membership is assigned to each person in set S to find the subset TALL. (Height(x) ± 5¶ )/ 2¶ 1. 1 for ³TALL´ and 0 for ³NOT TALL´ Fuzzy sets may be used to show the relationship or degree of precision: If S is the set of all people in the Universe. if 5¶<= Height(x) <= 7¶ if height(x)> 7 feet . TALL(x) = 0. if Height(x) < 5¶.An example: By using conventional method we can call a person ³TALL´ if the height is 7 feet and a person with height 5 feet is NOT TALL.

Degree of relationship .

Benefits of Fuzzy System Modeling Ability to Model Highly Complex Business Problems Ability to Model System Involving Multiple Experts Reduce Model Complexity Improve Handling of Uncertain and Possibilities .

is based on the input. output flow concept. like traditional Expert and Decision Support System. A fuzzy model differs in two important properties: What flows into and out of the process. process. and the fundamental transformation activity embodied in the process itself .Fuzzy Logic in IR Fuzzy Model Overview A fuzzy model.

Information flow in Fuzzy System .

Basic Fuzzy Databases Approaches Fuzzy Relation : A fuzzy relation is a subset of the set corss product P(D1) X P(D2) X «X P(Dm) Membership in a specfic relation. Fuzzy Tuples and Interpretation A fuzzy tuple t. r. is determined by the underlying semantics of the relation. is any member of both r and P(D1) X P(D2)X«XP(Dm) .

The simplest form for a fuzzy database is the attachment of a membership value ( numeric or linguistic ) to each tuple. the membership values denotes the degree to which the tuple belongs within the relation. For a query POLLUITED_SITE. Each tuple corresponds to a site and its particular major source of pollution .

7 0.6 .95 0.3 .0 0.POLLUTED_SITE SITE_ID L121 M555 By11 M441 F65 POLLUTATN Dioxin Oil Wastewater Mercury Landfill Qps 1.

[Dioxin Extreme]. [Water Tolerable] } . EFFECT) ( W( NAME = F) (SURVEY) ) This yields the temporary relation R1: R1= { [ Oil Severe].QUERY1: What are the opinion of the resident F on environmental effects of pollutant? R1 = ( T ( POLLUTANT.

Querying Fuzzy Relational Databases In systems that are relationally structured and using fuzzy set concepts. Pollutant Oil Oil Water Name A B C Effect Limited Extreme Moderate Type Expert Resident Resident . nearly all developments have considered various extensions of the relations algebra.

. Each Cluster entry is a key value followed by a set of archived record numbers. .g. e.Data Storage and Retrieval Process When a query is made for the address of a Person the archived data is clustered according to the various criteria. within the same zip code or by similar last name It constructs and attaches to a window discription a set expression for which an example (Cluster1 Cluster3) ( Cluster2 Cluster3) Several properties of clusters are relevant. by similar street names.

One measure of how well each matches is based on the number of changes necessary to copy a prefix of the key in the cluster entry onto the detected street name. 331992 } Plaza / { 12909. Given the ³Plz´ example just shown. 109234. . There might exist a cluster classified among other destination city clusters and whose key entries are street names and abbreviations The contents of this cluster might appear as: Pizza / { 50873. 234144}«. each of the key match to a certain extent. 43831. 231709} Place / { 25670.Example: If the destination is city is unambiguous and if ³Plz´ is detected as part of a street name.

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Common Objections to Fuzzy Logic Much of the opposition to fuzzy logic is based on the misconception Fuzzy logic invites the belief that the modeling process generates imprecise answers .

Conclusion The exact directions and extent of future developments will be dictated by advancing technology and market forces Fuzzy logic is a tool and can only useful and powerful when combined with Analytical Methodologies and Machine Reasoning Techniques .

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