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Chapter 29 is heavy-duty physics. Theres a lot of material to cover. Please get help if you are having trouble following the lecture or doing the homework! If you really want to understand the material, youll need to study the text in Chapter 29 carefully. These notes alone are not enough for complete understanding! However, do study these notes, because they

contain homework hints which I will skip during lecture.

Reminder: Special Homework #7 is due tomorrow. Pick it up from the back of the room or download from the Physics 24 web site. Hold on to your seats!

You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faradays Law.

You must be able to use Faradays Law to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.

Lenzs Law.

You must be able to use Lenzs Law to determine the direction induced current, and therefore induced emf.

Generators.

You must understand how generators work, and use Faradays Law to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators.

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

Magnetic Induction We have found that an electric current can give rise to a magnetic field I wonder if a magnetic field can somehow give rise to an electric current

An electric current is induced if there is a closed circuit (e.g., loop of wire) in the changing magnetic flux. I B

A constant magnetic flux does not induce an emfit takes a changing magnetic flux. Skip to slide 7.

Passing the coil through the magnet would induce an emf in the coil.

They need to calibrate their meter!

Note that change may or may not not require observable (to you) motion. wire, A magnet may move through a loop of wire or a loop of wire may be moved through a magnetic field (as suggested in the previous slide). These involve observable motion. N S

I

this part of the loop is closest to your eyes

v region of move magnet toward coil magnetic field change area of loop inside magnetic field

changing I

induced I

changing B

A changing current in a loop of wire gives rise to a changing magnetic field (predicted by Amperes law) which can induce a current in another nearby loop of wire. In the this case, nothing observable (to your eye) is moving, although, of course microscopically, electrons are in motion. Induced emf is produced by a changing magnetic flux.

You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faradays Law.

You must be able to use Faradays Law to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.

Lenzs Law.

You must be able to use Lenzs Law to determine the direction induced current, and therefore induced emf.

Generators.

You must understand how generators work, and use Faradays Law to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators.

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

We can quantify the induced emf described qualitatively in the last few slides by using magnetic flux. Experimentally, if the flux through N loops of wire changes by d B in a time dt, the induced emf is dB = -N . dt

Faradays Law of Magnetic Induction

average = - N

B . t

Faradays law of induction is one of the fundamental laws of electricity and magnetism. I wonder why the sign

Your text, pages 997-998, shows how to determine the direction of the induced emf. Argh! Lenzs Law, coming soon, is much easier.

In the equation

dB = -N , dt

This is sometimes shown as another expression of Faradays Law: r r Well use this dB version in a later ds = - dt E lecture. r r In a future lecture, well work with ds. E

Web page with pictures of a whole bunch of applications: http://sol.sci.uop.edu/~jfalward/electromagneticinduction/electromagneticinduction.html

Example: move a magnet towards a coil of wire. N=5 turns A=0.002 m2 dB = 0.4 T/s dt r r d B dA dB = -N = -N dt dt d( BA) = -N dt dB = -NA dt T = - 5 ( 0.002 m ) 0.4 =-0.004 V s

2

I

+ -

N

v

Possible homework hint: for a circular loop, C=2 R, so A= r2= (C/2 )2=C2/4 , so you can express d(BA)/dt in terms of dC/dt.

Ways to induce an emf (continued): change the orientation of the loop in the field

=90

=45

=0

Skip to slide 17 .

Example: a uniform (but time-varying) magnetic field passes through a circular coil whose normal is parallel to the magnetic field. The coils area is 10-2 m2 and it has a resistance of 1 m . B varies with time as shown in the graph. Plot the current in the coil as a function of time.

d( BA) dB dB ===- A dt dt dt

A dB = IR I = = R R dt

For 0 < t < 3:

.01 T

=1 s

For 3 < t < 5:

dB =0 I =0 dt

Example: a uniform (but time-varying) magnetic field passes through a circular coil whose normal is parallel to the magnetic field. The coils area is 10-2 m2 and it has a resistance of 1 m . B varies with time as shown in the graph. Plot the current in the coil as a function of time. For 5 < t < 11:

I(t)

.01 T

=1 s

-.0333 A

You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faradays Law.

You must be able to use Faradays Law to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.

Lenzs Law.

You must be able to use Lenzs Law to determine the direction induced current, and therefore induced emf.

Generators.

You must understand how generators work, and use Faradays Law to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators.

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

Experimentally Lenzs lawAn induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the change in flux.* I

+ -

N

v

If Lenzs law were not trueif there were a + sign in Faradays lawthen a changing magnetic field would produce a current, which would further increase the magnetic field, further increasing the current, making the magnetic field still bigger

*Think of the current resulting from the induced emf as trying to maintain the

status quoto prevent change.

violating conservation of energy and ripping apart the very fabric of the universe

No Quiz time

Practice with Lenzs Law. In which direction is the current induced in the coil for each situation shown?

(counterclockwise)

(no current)

(counterclockwise)

(clockwise)

Rotating the coil about the vertical diameter by pulling the left side toward the reader and pushing the right side away from the reader in a magnetic field that points from right to left in the plane of the page. (counterclockwise)

Faradays Law

dB = -N dt

You can use Faradays Law to calculate the magnitude of the emf (or whatever the problem wants). Then use Lenzs Law to figure out the direction of the induced current (or the direction of whatever the problem wants). The direction of the induced emf is in the direction of the current that flows in response to the flux change. We usually ask you to calculate the magnitude of the induced emf ( | | ) and separately specify its direction.

Magnetic flux is not a vector. Like electrical current, it is a scalar. Just as we talk about current direction (even though it is not a vector), we often talk about flux direction (even though it is not a vector). Keep this in mind if your recitation instructor talks about the direction of magnetic flux.

You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faradays Law.

You must be able to use Faradays Law to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.

You must be able to use Lenzs Law to determine the direction induced current, and therefore induced emf.

You must understand how generators work, and use Faradays Law to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators.

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

Motional emf: an overview An emf is induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field. Your text introduces four ways of producing motional emf. 1. Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: rotating loop. A B dB =dt

= NBA sin( t)

start with this

side view

I=

NBA sin( t) R

derive these

P = INBA sin( t)

2. Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: expanding loop. dB =dt r r r FM = I l B

B v dA x=vdt

= Bl v

Bl v I = = R R r r P = FP v =I l Bv

derive these

3. Conductor moving in a magnetic field experiences an emf: magnetic force on charged particles.

start with these

B v +

r r r r F = q E+v B

= El

(Mr. Ed)

derive this

= Bl v

You could also solve this using Faradays Law by constructing a virtual circuit using virtual conductors.

start with this

dB =dt

derive these

= Bl v Bl v I = P =I l Bv R

Lets look in detail at each of these four ways of using motion to produce an emf. Method 1

Generators and Motors: a basic introduction Take a loop of wire in a magnetic S N field and rotate it with an angular speed . r r B =B A = BA cos( ) B A Choose 0=0. Then

= 0 + t = t . B = BA cos ( t) dB =dt

side view

side view

= -N

d( BA cos ( t) ) dt

= NBA sin( t)

The NBA equation!

| | is maximum when = t = 90 or 270; i.e., when B is zero. The rate at which the magnetic flux is changing is then maximum. On the other hand, is zero when the magnetic flux is maximum.

= NBA sin( t)

NBA I= = sin( t) R R P = I = INBA sin( t)

Example: the armature of a 60 Hz ac generator rotates in a 0.15 T magnetic field. If the area of the coil is 2x10-2 m2, how many loops must the coil contain if the peak output is to be mx = 170 V? a

= N B A sin( t) max = N B A

I will not work this in lecture. Please study it on your own! Know where the 2 comes from.

Legal for me, because I just derived it (but not for you)!

N=

max

BA

N=

N = 150 (turns)

( 170 V)

Lets look in detail at each of these four ways of using motion to produce an emf. Method 2

Another Kind of Generator: A Slidewire Generator Recall that one of the ways to induce an emf is to change the area of the loop in the magnetic field. Lets see how this works. B v A U-shaped conductor and a moveable conducting rod are placed in a magnetic field, as shown. The rod moves to the right with dA a constant speed v for a time dt. vdt x The rod moves a distance v dt and the area of the loop inside the magnetic field increases by an amount dA = v dt .

The loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field, so the r r magnetic flux through the loop is B= = BA. dA B The emf induced in the conductor can be calculated using Faradays law: dB = -N dt B v d( BA) = 1 dt B dA = dt dA vdt x dx = Bl B and v are vector dt

= B l v.

magnitudes, so they are always +. Wire length is always +. You use Lenzs law to get the direction of the

Direction of current? The induced emf causes current to flow in the loop. Magnetic flux inside the loop increases (more area). System wants to make the flux stay the same, so the current gives rise to a field inside the loop into the plane of the paper (to counteract the extra flux). Clockwise current! B v I dA vdt x

As the bar moves through the magnetic field, it feels r a force r r FM = I l B v B A constant pulling force, equal in F M F P magnitude and opposite in direction, must be applied to keep the bar moving with a r constant r velocity. FP = FM = I l B I

x

Power and current. If the loop has resistance R, the current is Bl v I = = . R R And the power is r r P = FP v =I l Bv B v I

x

Mechanical energy (from the pulling force) has been converted into electrical energy, and the electrical energy is then dissipated by the resistance of the wire.

You might find it useful to look at Dr. Waddills lecture on Faradays Law, from several semesters back. Click here to view the lecture. If the above link doesnt work, try copying and pasting this into your browser address bar:

http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Handouts/Lec_18.ppt

Lets look in detail at each of these four ways of using motion to produce an emf. Method 3

Example 3 of motional emf: moving conductor in B field. Motional emf is the emf induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field. If a conductor (purple bar) moves with speed v in a magnetic field, the electrons in the bar experience a force r r r r r FM = qv B= - ev B B v +

up

The force on the electrons is up, so the top end of the bar acquires a net charge and the bottom end of the bar acquires a net + charge. The charges in the bar are separated.

The separated charges in the bar produce an electric field pointing up the bar. The emf across the length of the bar is = El The electric field exerts a downward force on the r r r electrons: = qE= - eE F

E

up B v +

An equilibrium condition is reached, where the magnetic and electric forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. evB= eE= e l = Bl v

Homework Hint! When the moving conductor is tilted relative to its direction r of motion (when is not v perpen-dicular to the conductor), you must use the effective length of the conductor. r r V = E l = E l cos B v e c e ffe tiv +

= E l effective

effective = sin if you use the if you define as the angle relative to the horizontal

Caution: you do not have to use this technique for homework problem 29.21. Be sure to understand why!

Lets look in detail at each of these four ways of using motion to produce an emf. Method 4

Example 4 of motional emf: flux change through conducting loop. (Entire loop is moving.) Ill include some numbers with this example.

Remember, its the flux change that produces the emf. Flux has no direction associated with it. However, the presence of flux is due to the presence of a magnetic field, which does have a direction, and allows us to use Lenzs law to determine the direction of current and emf.

A square coil of side 5 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.6 T magnetic field. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the field (moving to B) to a region where the field drops abruptly to zero. It takes 0.10 s to remove the coil, whose resistance is 100 .

B = 0.6 T

5 cm

Initial: Bi

r r = B dA = BA .

Final: Bf = 0 .

Current will begin to flow when the coil starts to exit the magnetic field. Because of the resistance of the coil, the current will eventually stop flowing after the coil has left the magnetic field.

final

initial The current must flow clockwise to induce an inward magnetic field (which replaces the removed magnetic field).

dA

x v

d( l x) dA dx = = l = lv dt dt dt

= - NB l v

uniformly pulled

= 1.5 V

The induced current is I =

1.5 V

100

= 15 mA .

(c) How much energy is dissipated in the coil? Current flows only* during the time flux changes. E = P t = I2R t = (1.5x10-2 A)2 (100 ) (0.1 s) = 2.25x10-3 J (d) Discuss the forces involved in this example. The loop has to be pulled out of the magnetic field, so there is a pulling force, which does work. The pulling force is opposed by a magnetic force on the current flowing in the wire. If the loop is pulled uniformly out of the magnetic field (no acceleration) the pulling and magnetic forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

*Remember: if there were no resistance in the loop, the current would flow indefinitely. However, the resistance quickly halts the flow of current once the magnetic flux stops changing.

The flux change occurs only when the coil is in the process of leaving the region of magnetic field.

No No No No

Fapplied

(e) Calculate the force necessary to pull the coil from the field. Remember, a force is needed only when the coil is partly in the field region.

r r r Fmag = N IL B

where L is a vector in the direction of I having a magnitude equal to the length of the wire inside the field region.

F2

L2

L 1

There must be a pulling force to the right to overcome the net magnetic force to the left.

Magnitudes only (direction shown in diagram): Fmag = NILB= ( 100) ( 1.5 10-2 ) ( 5 10-2 ) ( 0.6) =4.5 10-2N=Fpull

F2

L2

L 1

L3 F3 I

Fpull

F1

This calculation assumes the coil is pulled out uniformly; i.e., no acceleration, so Fpull = Fmg . a

)( )

x I

Fpull

The work done by the pulling force is equal to the electrical energy provided to (and dissipated in) the coil.

Handy Hint: Debugging Your Homemade Generator If you build a generator and it doesnt seem to be working or if you want to test a wall socket to see if it is live simply purchase a Vilcus Plug Dactyloadapter from ThinkGeek

( http://www.thinkgeek.com/stuff/41/lebedev.shtml )

You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faradays Law.

You must be able to use Faradays Law to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.

You must be able to use Lenzs Law to determine the direction induced current, and therefore induced emf.

Generators.

You must understand how generators work, and use Faradays Law to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. Skip to back emf (slide 70). Please study the next 5 slides on your own!

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

electric motors and web applets Generator: source of mechanical energy rotates a current loop in a magnetic field, and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Electric motor: a generator in reverse. Current in loop in magnetic field gives rise to torque on loop. A dc motor animation is here. Details about ac and dc motors at hyperphysics. Other useful animations here.

True Fact you didnt know: all electrical motors operate on smoke. Every motor has the correct amount of smoke sealed inside it at the factory. If this smoke ever gets out, the motor is no longer functional. I can even provide the source of this true information.

http://www.xs4all.nl/~jcdverha/scijokes/2_16.html#subindex

detailed look at a generator (if time permits) Lets begin by looking at a simple animation of a generator. http://www.wvic.com/how-gen-works.htm Heres a freeze-frame. Normally, many coils of wire are wrapped around an armature. The picture shows only one. slip ring Brushes pressed against a slip ring make continual contact. The shaft on which the armature is mounted is turned by some mechanical means.are some oversimplifications in this analysis which an expert would Disclaimer: there

consider errors. Anyone who is an expert at generators is invited to help me correct these slides!

brush

Lets look at the current direction in this particular freeze-frame. B is down. Coil rotates counterclockwise. Put your fingers along the direction of movement. Stick out your thumb. Rotate your hand until your palm points in the direction of B. Your thumb points in the direction of conventional current.

This wire connects to this ring so the current flows this way.

Another way to generate electricity with hamsters: give them little magnetic collars, and run them through a maze of coiled wires.

http://www.xs4all.nl/~jcdverha/scijokes/2_16.html#subindex

Later in the cycle, the current still flows clockwise in the loop but now this* wire connects to this ring so the current flows this way.

Without commutatordc. *Same wire as before, in different position.

Back emf.

You must be able to use Lenzs law to explain back emf.

back emf (also known as counter emf) (if time permits) A changing magnetic field in wire produces a current. A constant magnetic field does not. We saw how changing the magnetic field experienced by a coil of wire produces ac current. But the electrical current produces a magnetic field, which by Lenzs law, opposes the change in flux which produced the current in the first place.

http://campus.murraystate.edu/tsm/tsm118/Ch7/Ch7_4/Ch7_4.htm

The counter emf is like friction that opposes the original change of current. Motors have many coils of wire, and thus generate a large counter emf when they are running. Goodkeeps the motor from running away. Bad robs you of energy.

If your house lights dim when an appliance starts up, thats because the appliance is drawing lots of current and not producing a counter emf. When the appliance reaches operating speed, the counter emf reduces the current flow and the lights undim. Motors have design speeds their engineers expect them to run at. If the motor runs at a lower speed, there is less-than-expected counter emf, and the motor can draw more-than-expected current. If a motor is jammed or overloaded and slows or stops, it can draw enough current to melt the windings and burn out. Or even burn up.

Two brief examples (for you to review outside of lecture): Induced emf on an airplane wing. Blood flow measurement.

Please study these examples on your own!

Example: An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earths field is 5x10-5 T and is vertical. What is the potential difference induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? v

The electrons pile up on the left hand wing of the plane, leaving an excess of + charge on the right hand wing. The equation for at the bottom of slide 10 gives the potential difference. (Youd have to derive this on a test.) = Bl v v = ( 510-5 T ) ( 70 m) ( 280 m/s) = 1V

Example: Blood contains charged ions, so blood flow can be measured by applying a magnetic field and measuring the induced emf. If a blood vessel is 2 mm in diameter and a 0.08 T magnetic field causes an induced emf of 0.1 mv, what is the flow velocity of the blood? =Bv v = / (B ) If B is applied to the blood vessel, then B is to v. The ions flow along the blood vessel, but the emf is induced across the blood vessel, so is the diameter of the blood vessel. v = (0.1x10-3 V) / ( (0.08 T)(0.2x10-3 m) ) v = 0.63 m/s

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