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What is it?

Waste-toWaste-to-energy (WtE) is a process of creating

energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. A form of energy recovery.

WtE Process Types

Mass burn facilities
It process raw waste that has not been shredded, sized, or separated before combustion, although large items such as appliances and hazardous waste materials and batteries are removed before combustion.

WtE Process Types

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF)
It is a result of processing municipal solid waste (MSW) to separate the combustible fraction from the noncombustible, such as metals and glass. RDF is mainly composed of paper, plastic, wood, and kitchen or yard wastes, and it has higher energy content than untreated MSW

Waste-to-Energy Conversion Pathways

Thermochemical Conversion Biochemical Conversion Physico-chemical Conversion







It is characterized by higher temperature and conversion rates, is best suited for lower moisture feedstock and is generally less selective for products.

Thermochemical Processes

Thermochemical Conversion Technologies

Incineration produce ash, flue gas, and heat Gasification produce carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane Pyrolysis produce gas and liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in carbon content

the controlled combustion of waste with the recovery of heat to produce steam which in turn produces power through steam turbines converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power


processes involve the reaction of carbonaceous feedstock with an oxygen-containing reagent, usually oxygen, air, steam or carbon dioxide, generally at temperatures in excess of 800C. involves the partial oxidation of a substance which implies that oxygen is added but the amounts are not sufficient to allow the fuel to be completely oxidised and full combustion to occur.


thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of oxygen. fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the combustion and gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds. products of biomass pyrolysis include biochar, biooil and gases including methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.


It is are preferred for wastes having high percentage of organic biodegradable (putrescible) matter and high moisture content.

Biochemical Processes

Biochemical Conversion Technologies

Anaerobic digestion produce biogas Alcohol fermentation produce ethanol

Anaerobic Digestion
a reliable technology for the treatment of organic waste organic waste from various sources is composted in highly controlled, oxygen-free conditions resulting in the production of biogas which can be used to produce both electricity and heat It also results in a dry residue called digestate which can be used as a soil conditioner


Alcohol Fermentation
transformation of organic fraction of biomass to ethanol by a series of biochemical reactions using specialized microorganisms It finds good deal of application in the transformation of woody biomass into cellulosic ethanol


It involves various processes to improve physical and chemical properties of solid waste. The combustible fraction of the waste is converted into high-energy fuel pellets which may be used in steam generation.

Physico-chemical Processes

Physico-chemical Conversion Technologies

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