Are you using the right CT's and PT's for your application?

John Levine, P.E. Levine Lectronics and Lectric E-mail: John@L-3.com GE Multilin/ Instrument Transformers, Inc.
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GE Multilin Instrument Transformers, Inc.

Current & Voltage Transformer Basics (IEEE Standards)

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GE Multilin Instrument Transformers, Inc.

Agenda
Current Transformers Voltage Transformers Required Information for Specifying CTs & VTs Take Home Rules´ for CTs & VTs Configure Tool for CTs and VTs Products and tour of Plant Applications where used FT Switches Configure Tool for FT Switches
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GE Multilin Instrument Transformers, Inc.

Phasor combinations for summing and measuring power 4 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.Why use Instrument Transformers? Circuit Isolation Reduce voltage and currents to reasonable working levels. .

T. construction is the `DOUGHNUT' type. Inc. CONSTRUCTION The most common type of C.T.T. . It is constructed of an iron toroid. Secondary Winding Primary Conductor Iron Core 5 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. which forms the core of the transformer.CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS TYPES OF C. and is wound with secondary turns. AND V.

Transformer ratio (TR) Transformer Ratio = Primary Current ___________________ __ Secondary Current Secondary Current (5 amps) 100 ___ = 100:5 or 20:1 5 6 Primary Current (100 amps) GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. .

Polarity Direction of Primary Current Primary IEEE Polarity IEC Marks X1 S1 H1 P1 Direction of Secondary Current IEEE Secondary IEC Polarity Marks Remember: Primary current into ³polarity´ = Secondary current out of ³polarity´ 7 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. .

Inc.Polarity X1 S1 H1 P1 Direction of Secondary Current IEEE Secondary IEC Polarity Marks Primary IEEE Polarity IEC Marks Remember: Primary current into ³non-polarity´ = Secondary current out of ³nonpolarity´ Direction of Primary Current 8 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .

. Inc.G30 typical wiring 9 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

how high do I need to go in current? 20 times ? 10 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. how high do I need to go in current? 2 times ? If your application is protective relaying.What is your application? If your application is metering . .

0.IEEE Rated current x (RF) = Maximum continuous current carrying capability: Without exceeding temperature limits Without loss of published accuracy class Typical rating factors -.1.5.0 11 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.0. 1. . Inc. 3. 1.0. 4.33. 2.CT Rating Factor (RF) -.

0 0.CT Rating Factor (RF) -. Inc.0 4.3% @ BX.3% Accuracy Region 200% 300% 400% 10% 0.% 0.13 Accuracy 0.0 12 Rating Factor GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.IEEE 0.0 3.60 1.60 IEEE C57. .6% Accuracy Accuracy Class .30 Region 0.30 100% 0.X RF 4.0 2.

. Inc.Short-Time Thermal Current Rating One (1) ± second thermal rating Expressed as value of RMS primary current Main influencing factor: CT primary & secondary wire size Can be converted to thermal rating for any time period (t) up to five (5) seconds: I1-sec  ˜t 13 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

. Inc.CT Metering Accuracy Actual secondary current = Rated secondary current Difference in % is known as the ³Accuracy´ of the CT 14 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

2 Application High Accuracy Metering ³Special´ High Accuracy Metering Revenue Metering Indicating Instruments Indicating Instruments 15 * All accuracy classes defined by IEEE C57.6 * Accuracy classes include both ratio & phase angle error GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .13 or C57.3 0.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy Accuracy Class ( * ) 0.13.6 1.15S 0. Inc.15 0.

B1.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy Burden Load connected to CT secondary Includes devices & connecting leads Expressed in ohms Standard values = B0. .1.8 All burdens defined by IEEE C57.2.5. B0.13 or C57. E0. B0.04.13.2 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. B0.9.6 for 60 Hz only 16 E0.

5 22.13.9 0. Inc.2 B0.5 0.0 17 Metering GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.5 45 5 1 Power Factor 0.9 0.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy Standard IEEE CT Burdens (5 Amp) (Per IEEE Std.6) Application Burden Designation B0. .5 5 12.9 1.9 0.9 1.9 B1.8 0.9 0.2 0. C57.2 E0.04 VA @ 5 amps 2.04 Impedance (Ohms) 0.0 1.1 B0.1 0.13-1993 & C57.5 B0.8 E0.2 0.

9 OHMS.T.3% when the GE Multilin connected burden does not exceed 0. to saturate when fault current flows. It is quite acceptable. . for the C. and in fact desirable.T. The C. provided the rated burden on the C. Instrument Transformers.T.CT CLASSIFICATION for Metering A current transformer for metering purposes may typically have an accuracy of 0.9 O. is specified as: 0.3%.3 M 0. The accuracy for a typical metering C.3% METERING O.T. has an accuracy of 0. must maintain this accuracy for normal load currents.9 OHMS BURDEN 18 This metering C. is not exceeded. Inc.T.

5. 0.3B0. twice the error is allowed (5% for 0. B1. E0. 1.1. 0. B0.2.04) Typical Examples + Burden (Ohms) = 0.6B0.6.2.8) E0. B0.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy ³Accuracy´ expressed as: Accuracy Class (0. B0.15E0.15 class) ^ Accuracy class is stated at 100% to 5% rated current 19 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.2) (*) (B0.15*. .2B1.2 0.9.2 (0.15S^) * Accuracy class is stated at 100% rated current * At 10% rated current.9 1. Inc.3.8 0.

60 IEEE C57. .6% Accuracy Region Accuracy Class .30 100% No accuracy guaranteed at current levels less than 10% 0. RF 4.30 0.3% Accuracy Region 200% 300% 400% 10% 0.0 20 Rating Factor GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.0 2.0 3.0 4.60 1.X.3 @ BX.0 0.13 Accuracy 0. Inc.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy 0.% 0.

3 class parallelogram 100% 10% 0.3% Class 21 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.6 class parallelogram Note: Burden must be specified Out of 0. Inc.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy CT Parallelogram ± IEEE C57. .13 0.

.6 class parallelogram Note: Burden must be specified 10% Corrected to 0. Inc.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy CT Parallelogram ± IEEE C57.3% Class 22 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.13 0.3 class parallelogram 100% 0.

E0. .0 2.% 0. RF4.15 @ E0.15% Accuracy Region 0.04.0 4.15 0.0 23 Rating Factor GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.20.30 No accuracy guaranteed at current levels less than 5% 0. 0.X.3% Accuracy 5% Region 100% Accuracy Class .0 3.60 1.15 200% 300% 400% 0.60 IEEE C57.IEEE CT Metering Accuracy 0.30 0.13.15 @ BX.0 0.6 Accuracy 0.

IEEE CT Metering Accuracy
0.60

IEEE C57.13.6 Accuracy 0.15S @ E0.04, E0.20; 0.15S @ BX.X, RF4.0
0.15% Accuracy Region

Accuracy Class - %

0.30 0.15 5% 0.15 0.30 No accuracy guaranteed at current levels less than 5% 100%

200%

300%

400%

0.60

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0
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Rating Factor

GE Multilin Instrument Transformers, Inc.

IEEE CT Relay Accuracy
Standard Relay Accuracy Classes
C or T100 C or T200 C or T400 C or T800
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What do these mean?

GE Multilin Instrument Transformers, Inc.

IEEE CT Relay Accuracy
Relay class (C or T___ ) designates minimum secondary terminal volts« At 20 times rated current Without exceeding 10% ratio error Into a maximum specified burden
Now that everyone is totally confused let¶s look at some simple examples GE Multilin « Instrument Transformers, Inc.
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Inc.Must supply 20 times rated current Format 10 C 400 Accuracy Letter Voltage at 20 times CT T = Determined by test C = Calculated K = Calculated L = Low internal secondary impedance H = High internal secondary impedance 27 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.CT CLASSIFICATION for RELAYING Protection Class CT¶s . .

0 : ) 28 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.0 : Terminal Volts = (20 times rated) (Total external burden) 100 Volts = (100 amps) (1. Inc.000 amps (20 x 1200) CT 1200:5 C or T100 Burden of Leads (:) Total Ext Burden 1.IEEE CT Relay Accuracy C or T100 example Terminal Volts = 100 X1 X2 Secondary current 100 amps (20 x 5) Burden of Devices (:) Primary current 24. .

000 amps (20 x 1200) CT 1200:5 C or T200 Burden of Leads (:) Total Ext Burden 2.0 : Terminal volts = (20 times rated) (Total external burden) 200 Volts = (100 amps) (2.IEEE CT Relay Accuracy C or T200 example Terminal Volts = 200 X1 X2 Secondary current 100 amps (20 x 5) Burden of Devices (:) Primary current 24. Inc. .0 : ) 29 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

. Inc.13-1993) Application Burden Designation B1 B2 B4 B8 Impedance (Ohms) 1 2 4 8 VA @ 5 amps 25 50 100 200 Power Factor 0.5 0. C57.5 0.5 Relaying 30 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.IEEE CT Relay Accuracy Standard IEEE CT Burdens (5 Amp) (Per IEEE Std.5 0.

10) = 10 amps How many terminal volts would you estimate this CT can produce? 31 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .IEEE CT Relay Accuracy Excitation curve includes voltage required to overcome internal resistance (DCR) of CT. 10% ratio error = (20 x 5) (10%) = (100) (0. Inc. Approximately 32 volts.

CT Burden Calculation How do we calculate this? Secondary current Burden of Devices (:) CT Total Burden ZT X1 X2 Primary Current Burden of Leads (:) 32 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. . Inc.

. Inc.CT Burden Calculation ZT = RCT + RL + ZB ZT = Total burden in ohms (vector summation of resistance and inductance components) RCT (DCR) RL = Resistance of leads in ohms (Total loop distance) ZB = Device impedance in ohms Assumption: 3 phase CTs are ³Y´ connected 33 = CT secondary resistance in ohms @75 deg C GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

So 0.2 = I*I*R.GE Multilin Electronic Relay Burden VA = VI.008 ohms 34 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.2/25 = . . V= IR. Inc. .

062 ohm Resistance of Cable from C. Secondary Winding Resistance = .1 .2 Volts.T.100:5 C.062 .T. Therefore we must be able to produce a total voltage of 100 amps x .2 Volts.182 ohms .1 ohms Resistance of Relay Coil = .182 ohms = 18.02 ohms Total Resistance = . secondary current is 100 amps.T. select a CT with a knee point above 18.T. to Relay and back = . .02 If we have a fault of 2. Inc. ratio is 100:5 then the C. 35 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.000 amps and the C. To prevent CT saturation.

T. Therefore we must be able to produce a total voltage of 100 amps x .1 ohms Resistance of Relay Coil = . Class C100 1000:5 C.T.T. What happens if the fault current is 35.32 .000 amps? 36 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.8 Volts.1 . ratio is 1000:5 then the C. to Relay and back = .428 ohms = 42.008 If we have a fault of 20. select a CT with a knee point above 42. .008 ohms Total Resistance = .428 ohms .8 Volts. secondary current is 100 amps. Secondary Winding Resistance = . To prevent CT saturation.T.32 ohm Resistance of Cable from C.000 amps and the C.780-102 is a 1000 to 5 CT.

Factors Influencing CT Accuracy Frequency ³Low frequency´ and ³High accuracy´ are not friends!! Current Ratio ³Low ratio´ and ³high accuracy´ are not friends!! Burden ³High burden´ and ³High Accuracy´ are not friends!! 37 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. . Inc.

. Inc.Tips for Avoiding CT Saturation Use higher ratio CTs Use separate set of high ratio CTs for high fault current tripping Reduce secondary burden Select low burden relays & meters Distribute single phase burdens among phases Increase size of secondary leads Reduce length of secondary leads Use ³step down´ auxiliary CTs 38 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

.Potential Transformers 39 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.

40 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Regulation is not as critical. . Secondary (measuring) voltage is usually 115 or 120 volts nominally.Definitions Voltage Transformer (VT) An instrument transformer used to reflect a primary voltage into a secondary voltage through a magnetic medium. relays and devices with high inrush currents. Control Power Transformer (CPT) Designed to provide power for contractors. Inc. Always connected in parallel with primary conductor across a circuit load. The secondary voltage level is selected for ease of measurement and safety.

.41 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS VP 4200/120 = 35/1 2400/120 = 20/1 Vs Relay 42 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. .

15 Defined by IEEE C57.13.IEEE VT Accuracy Class Metering Accuracy Classes (% error) 0.3 0.2 0.13 Applicable from 90% to 110% rated voltage Defined by IEEE C57.6 1. . Inc.6 43 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

10 0. Inc.5 25 35 75 200 400 PF 0. GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .85 44 These standard burden designations have no significance at frequencies other than 60 Hz.85 0.70 0.IEEE VT Accuracy Class Metering Burden Accuracy Class Burdens W X M Y Z ZZ VA 12.20 0.85 0.

45 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.Y 0.6 Z 1. .3 W.2 ZZ These standard designations have no significance at frequencies other than 60 Hz.IEEE VT Accuracy Class Expressed as: Accuracy Class + Burden Code 0.X.

. Inc.46 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

Inc.VT Installation Guidelines Caution: Rated voltage: Do not operate above 110% Line to ground rated: Do not connect line to line Do not use on ungrounded systems w/o consulting factory Rated Frequency: Do not operate below rate frequency w/o consulting factory 47 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .

Withstand 40% over rated voltage for 1 minute and 10% over rated voltage continuously 48 4A 1 Y-Y Effectively 4B 1 Y-Y Y-Broken Corner ( Noneffectively Effectively 5 1 Y-Y GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Primary rated for line to line voltage. Withstand 10% over rated voltage continuously. . of Bushing 2 2 Connection Method open ( Y-Y possible open ( Y-Y possible 3 1 Y-Y-Y Any Any Neutral Grounding Any Notes Withstand 25% over rated voltage on an emergency basis Withstand 10% over rated voltage continuously. For operation at 58% rated voltage. Outdoor. For operation at 100% rated voltage. Inc. Withstand 10% overvoltage continuously.IEEE VT Groups VT Group 1 2 No. two secondary windings. Withstand 10% over rated voltage continuously & 25% on an emergency basis. Outdoor.

VT Typical Connections Open Delta Connection (2) Double Bushing VTs Y ± Y Connection (3) Single Bushing VTs 49 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. . Inc.

Inc.High VT currents Overheating VT failure 50 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.Ferroresonance Possible with Y connected grounded VTs on ungrounded power systems A VT is an inductive component Capacitance to ground exists in the system When they match ferroresonance may occur May cause higher VT voltages & saturation Possible results -. .

by Karlicek and Taylor 51 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc. . Aug 1959. pg 607-618.Ferroresonance Recommended reading: ³Ferroresonance of Grounded Potential Transformers on Ungrounded Power Systems´ AIEE Power Apparatus & Systems.

Ferroresonance Damping Preferred method Non effectively grounded system Y ± Broken Corner ( VT connection Voltage relay to detect ground fault 0 volts @ normal condition 3 times normal L-N phase voltage @ ground fault Ferroresonance damping resistor RFR 52 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. . Inc.

Inc. .Ferroresonance Damping Preferred method Y-Y/Broken Corner ( Connection Double secondary VT (1) Relaying / Metering (1) Ground fault detection and ferroresonance damping 53 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

General recommendation is 50% of VA rating of a single VT. .Ferroresonance Damping Ferroresonance damping resistor RFR value Based on 2 variables: Air core inductance of primary winding (La) VT ratio (N) RFR = 100 La / N2 Power rating (watts) of the resistor is a system related problem. Inc. 54 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

. Inc.Required Information for Specifying CTs & VTs 55 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

Outside: CT Window: Bar: _____ Current Ratio: ___Indoor ___Outdoor Power Frequency (kV) 4 3 10 19 20 26 28 34 50 40 70 70 ___Metering ___ Inches BIL (kV) 10 40 60 60 75 75 110 125 125 150 200 Standard (Check one) IEEE __ IEC __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEEE __ IEEE __ ___Protection ___ mm L ______ x W ______ x D ______ Round: ______ Diameter.Current Transformer (CT) RFQ Specification Environment: System Voltage (kV) 0.0 7.7 12 15 24 25 34.6 0. .6 5.2 8.5 34.72 3.5 CT Application: Dimensions: Max. Primary GE Multilin Continued next slide Instrument Transformers. Inc. _______ : 5 _______ : 1 56 Rectangular: L ______ x W ______ .

5 ___5.1 ___B0.4 ________Other IEC: ___0. «etc): ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 57 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.5 ___2.Current Transformer (CT) RFQ Specification (Continued) Accuracy: Indication Only: _____ %.5 ___1.9 ___B1.2 ___0. .0 ______Other ___VA. _____VA (Skip metering & protection selections) Metering Class: IEEE: ___0.5 ___B0.2 ___2. mounting requirements.6 ___1.33 ___1. Inc.0 ___50HZ ___1.8 ______Other IEC (VA): ___2.2 ___B0.0 ___10 ___15 ___30 ______Other Protection Class: Operating Frequency: Rating Factor: C______(IEEE) ___60HZ ___1.3 ___0. ___P___(IEC) Secondary Connections: ___Terminals Outer Insulation: Insulation Class: ___Standard ___24 inch leads ___Cotton tape & varnish _____Other ___Polyester tape ___105 0C (Standard) Other Special Requirements (dimensional constraints.0 ________Other Metering Burden: IEEE (Ohms): ___B0.

5 34.5.7 12 15 24 25 34. Inc.0 7.6 5.6 0. 0. .2 8. or leave blank) ___200VA Continued next slide ___500VA 58 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.3.72 3.6. 1. 1.5 ___Indoor ___Outdoor BIL (kV) 10 40 60 60 75 75 110 125 125 150 200 Standard (Check one) IEEE __ IEC __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEC __ IEEE __ IEEE __ IEEE __ Power Frequency (kV) 4 3 10 19 20 26 28 34 50 40 70 70 ___50HZ Operating Frequency: ___60HZ Accuracy: IEEE: ___W ___X ___M ________Other (Enter 0. or leave blank) IEC: ___Y ___Z ___ZZ ___10VA ___25VA ___50VA ___100VA ______Other (Enter 0. 0.2.0.2.Voltage Transformer (VT) RFQ Specification Environment: System Voltage (kV) 0.

Voltage Transformer (VT) RFQ Specification (Continued) Thermal Rating: Primary Voltage: _______VA (Optional) ___1 bushing ___2 bushing Secondary Voltage: _________VAC .9 for 30s Fuses: ___Primary ___Primary ___Secondary ___None ___Live parts only (600 ± 720 V) ___Switchgear Style ___Unfused (2.5kV ± 15kV) Note integral fusing not available above 15kV 59 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.Phase to neutral _________VAC . . Inc.9 for 8 hours ___Other____________ Rated Voltage Factor (RVF) (1 bushing only): ___1.Phase to phase ___120V ___115V ___110V ___100V ___120/˜3 ___115/˜3 ___110/˜3 ___100/˜3 ___Other _________________ ___1.

Very high voltages can result from open circuiting the secondary circuit of an energized CT.Take Home Rule # 1 Never open circuit a current transformer secondary while the primary is energized CTs are intended to be proportional current devices. . Inc. Even very small primary currents can cause damage« Consult the factory if you have questions. 60 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

61 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.Take Home Rule # 2 Never short circuit the secondary of an energized VT VTs are intended to be used as proportional voltage devices. . Damaging current will result from short circuiting the secondary circuit of an energized VT. Inc.

Inc. With some exceptions metering class CTs are typically smaller and less expensive.Take Home Rule # 3 Metering applications do not require a ³C´ class CT ³C´ class ratings are specified for protection purposes only. . 62 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.

Inc. .Take Home Rule # 4 CT secondary leads must be added to the CT burden Electronic relays usually represent very little burden to the CT secondary circuit. 63 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. In many cases the major burden is caused by the CT secondary leads.

VT failure is likely«severe equipment damage is possible.Take Home Rule # 5 Never use a 60 Hz rated VT on a 50 Hz System 60 Hz VTs may saturate at lower frequencies and exceed temperature limitations. . 64 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. Inc.

65 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers.Take Home Rule # 6 Exercise caution when connecting grounded VTs to ungrounded systems Line to ground voltage on any VT may exceed the primary voltage rating during a fault condition« VT must be designed for application. . Inc.

Inc.QUESTIONS? 66 GE Multilin Instrument Transformers. .

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