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ULFAT

Orthodontics A vision

DEFINITIONS & BRANCHES OF ORTHODONTICS LECTURE 1


DR GHULAM RASOOL
BDS (Pesh), C.Orth (Japan) MCPS (Pak), FCPS (P)

Assist Professor of Orthodontics Khyber College of Dentistry Peshawar.

06.10.2009

ORTHODONTICS
DEFINITION: Science that deals with the study of:
growth of craniofacial complex. Development of dentition & occlusion. Treatment of dento-facial anomalies.

BRANCHES OF ORTHODONTICS
PREVENTIVE ORTHODONTICS INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS CORRECTIVE ORTHODONTICS SURGICAL ORTHODONTICS

Preventive Orthodontics
It is the action taken to preserve the integrity of what appears to be normal at a specific time. This includes:
Early correction of carious lesions (proximal caries). Early recognition and elimination of oral habits. Using space maintainer in early loss of deciduous teeth.

Interceptive Orthodontics
It is that phase of science and art of orthodontics employed to recognize & eliminate potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. These procedures are employed to lessen or to eliminate the severity of developing malocclusion. E.g. planned serial extractions.

Corrective Orthodontics
Corrective orthodontics recognizes the existing malocclusion and the need for employing certain technical procedures to reduce or eliminate the problem by using different mechano-therapy like Removable appliances or fixed appliances

Surgical Orthodontics
Surgical orthodontics is combined orthodontic and surgical management of severe skeletal problems of maxillomandibular relationship in an individual, where active growth is completed

OCCLUSION
The way the maxillary & mandibular teeth articulate OR The static contact of upper & lower teeth

MALOCCLUSION
Malocclusion is defined as any deviation from normal occlusion of teeth. The teeth are in abnormal position in relationship to the basal bone of the alveolar process, to the adjacent teeth and/or opposing teeth.

TERMS RELATED TO SKELETAL COMPLEX


Shape of the head: Stand behind the patient, lower the chair and observe the shape of the head.
Mesiocephalic: is average head shape. Dolichocephalic: is long and narrow head shape. Brachycephalic: is broad and short head shape.

Facial form: Stand in front of the patient and examine the face form of the patient.
Mesoprosopic: in an average face form. Euryprosopic: is a broad and short face. Dolicoprosopic: is a long or narrow face or square face form, oval face form, round face form.

Frontal Evaluation
Bigonial width 30% less than the bi zygomatic width

Facial Type Short/long Round/Oval Square/Rectangular


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Lateral Profile Evaluation


Profile Angle
Glabella

Subnasale

Gnathion

Normal (165-175)

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ORTHOGNATHIC.

PROGNATHIC.

RETROGNATHIC.

Clinical Evaluation

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Clinical Evaluation

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Lower Facial Thirds

Upper part 1/3 Inter labial Gap Lower part 2/3


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Frontal Evaluation
Horizontal Reference
Pupillary Plane

Vertical Reference
Passes through philthrum According to midline; Nose Base Nose Tip Chin Tip Upper & lower dental Midlines
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Nose Projection
Normal value; 16-20 mm If increased Maxillary retrusion

If decreased Maxillary advancement

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Nasio-labial Angle

Normal Value: 110+ 80

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Smile Evaluation
Incisal Show
2/3 crown length-2mm gingiva Reasons for deviations Crown length Lip length Maxillary Height

Upper Incisal contour to lower lip contour Gingival Contour

Buccal Corridors
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TERMS RELATED TO DENTITION


Crowding: condition where there is positional irregularity of tooth crowns. Spacing: condition where there is gaps or spaces present between the teeth. Protrusion: condition where the maxillary and/ or mandibular teeth are related anterior to the normal.

Retrusion: condition where the maxillary and/or mandibular teeth are related posterior to the normal. Overjet: It is the horizontal overlapping between the upper and lower anterior teeth. Normally it is 2-3mm. Overjet can be normal, increased or decreased.

Overbite: It is the vertical overlapping of upper and lower anterior teeth. Normal is 12mm. Overbite can be normal, deep bite, closed bite, or open bite. Open bite: condition where there is lack of vertical overlapping of teeth.

Deep bite: condition where there is excessive vertical overlapping of teeth. Cross bite: condition where there is an abnormal buccolingual or labiolingual relationship of teeth, where the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth or vice versa

INDIVIDUAL MALPOSITIONS
Mesioversion. Distoversion. Lingoversion. Labioversion. Infraversion. Supraversion.

INDIVIDUAL MALPOSITIONS
Rotation/Torsiversion. Transposition.

TERMS RELATED TO GROWTH


Remodelling: change in shape and structure of bone due to resorption & deposition. Synchondrosis: The cranial base grows primarily by cartilaginous growth in the synchondrosis. There are four synchondrosis in the base of skull.
Spheno-occipital. Spheno-ethmoidal. Inter-sphenoidal. Intra-occipital.

TERMS RELATED TO GROWTH

TERMS RELATED TO ORTHODONTIC RECORDS


Study Cast. Cephalometric radiograph. OPG. Photographs

TERMS RELATED TO ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE


Removable appliance. Fixed appliance. Functional appliance.
Active Passive Retainer Anchorage

TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT CAUSED BY ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE


Retraction. Protraction. Tip. Torque. Translation. Rotation.

TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT CAUSED BY ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE


Intrusion. Extrusion.

THAN K YOU