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2 MOLE CONCEPT
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MATTER
1
Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be able : (a) Define mole in terms of mass of carbon12 and Avogadro constant, NA. (b) Interconvert between moles, mass, number of particles, molar volume of gas at s.t.p. and room temperature.
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(c) Determine empirical and molecular formulae from mass composition or combustion data.
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MATTER
3
(d) Define and perform calculation for each of the following concentration measurements : i) molarity (M) ii) molality (m) iii) mole fraction, X iv) percentage by mass, % w/w v) percentage by volume, %V/V
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(e) Determine the oxidation number of an element in a chemical formula. (f) Write and balance : i) chemical equation by inspection method ii) redox equation by ionelectron method
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MATTER
5
(g) Define limiting reactant and percentage yield. (h) Perform stoichiometric calculations using mole concept including reactant and percentage yield.
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MATTER
6
1.2 Mole Concept
A
mole is defined as the amount of substance which contains equal number of particles (atoms / molecules / ions) as there are atoms in exactly 12.000g of carbon12.
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MATTER
7
One
mole of carbon12 atom has a mass of exactly 12.000 grams and contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms. value 6.02 x 1023 is known as Avogadro Constant.
The
NA =
6.02 x 1023 mol1
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MATTER
8
Example
1.0 mole of chlorine atom 1.0 mole of chlorine molecules = 6.02 x 1023 chlorine atoms = 35.5 g Cl = 6.02 x 1023 chlorine molecules = 71.1 g Cl2 = 6.022 x 1023 x 2 chlorine atoms = 6.02x 1023 molecules = 6.02 x 1023 x 4 atoms = 6.02 x 1023 N atom = 6.02 x 1023 X 3 H atoms
MATTER 9
1.0 mole of NH3
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Molar Mass
The
mass of one mole of an element or one mole of compound is referred as molar mass. : g mol1
Unit
Example:

molar mass of Mg molar mass of CH4
= = =
24 g mol1 (12 + 4) gmol1 16 g mol1
10
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MATTER
Number of Mole
Mass (g) Number of mole = Molar Mass (g mol 1 )
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MATTER
11
Example 1
In 14 g of N 2 , calculate; i. Number of moles molecule if molar mass = 28 g mol 1 ii. Number of molecule iii. Number of atoms
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MATTER
12
Solution : i. Number of moles molecule if molar mass = 28 gmol 1 Mass (g) Number of mole molecules N 2 = Molar Mass (g mol 1 ) 14 g = 28 g mol 1 = 0.5 mol
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MATTER
13
Example 1 (cont…)
ii. Numberof molecule Number of molecules 2 = Numberof mole x NA N = 0.5x 6.022 10 x 23 = 3.011 10 molecules x 23 iii.Number atoms of 1 moleculeofN2 contains atomsof N 2 3.011 10 moleculeofN2 contains2 x 3.011 10 atomsof N x 23 x 23 = 6.022 10 atoms x 23
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Example 2
Calculate the numberH atom in 1 mole of NH 3 1 mole of NH contains molesof H atoms 3 3 Numberof atoms Number of moles= NA Numberof atoms 3 x 6.022 10 = x 23 = 1.807 10 atoms x 24
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MATTER
15
Example 3
Calculate the number of bromide ions in 2 moles of CaBr2 1 mole of CaBr2 contains 2 moles of bromide ions 2 mole of CaBr2 contains 4 moles of bromide ions so, Number of bromide ions = 4 x 6.022 x 10 23 = 1.2046 x 10 24 ions
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MATTER
16
1.2.1 Mole Concept of Gases
Molar
volume of any gas at STP = 22.4 dm3 mol1
s.t.p. = Standard Temperature and Pressure Where, T = 273.15 K P = 1 atm
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MATTER
17
1
mole of gas has a volume of 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p At s.t.p, volume of gas (dm3) = number of mole X 22.4 dm3 mol1 mole of gas has a volume of 24.0 dm3 at room temperature At room temperature, volume of gas (dm3) = number of mole X 24.0 dm3 mol1
1
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MATTER
18
Example 1
A balloon is filled with hydrogen gas at s.t.p. If the volume of the ballon is 2.24 dm 3 , calculate the amount (mole) of hydrogen gas. Solution 1, 22.4 dm 3 consists 1 mol of hydrogen gas 1 3 2.24 dm consists x 2.24 mol of hydrogen gas 22.4 so, Number of mole = 0.1 mol
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Cont… from example 1
Solution 2, volume of gas (dm 3 ) Number of mole = 3 −1 22.4 dm mol 2.24dm 3 = 3 −1 22.4 dm mol = 0.1 mol
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MATTER
20
Exercise
A sample of CO2 has a volume of 56 cm3 at STP. Calculate:
c.
The number of moles of gas molecules 0.0025 mol
f.
The number of molecular 1.506 x 1021 molecules
i.
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The number of oxygen atoms in the sample 3.011x1021atoms Note: 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 MATTER 21 3 1 dm = 1L
Empirical And Molecular Formulae


Empirical formula is a chemical formula that shows the simplest ratio of all elements in a molecule. Molecular formula is a formula that show the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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MATTER
22

The relationship between empirical formula and molecular formula is : Molecular formula = n ( empirical formula ) Where ;
relative molecular mass n= emprical formula mass
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Example A sample of hydrocarbon contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Its molar mass is 56. Determine the empirical formula and molecular formula of the compound.
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MATTER
24
Solution : C mass Number of mol 85.7 85.7 12 7.1417 1 H 14.3 14.3 1 14.3 2
Simplest ratio
Empirical formula = CH2
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relative molecular mass n= emprical formula mass
n = 56 14 = 4
56 14 =4
molecular formula = C4H8
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1.2.2 Concentration of Solution
Solution When an amount of solute dissolved completely in a solvent and it will form a homogeneous mixture.
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MATTER
27
Exercise
A combustion of 0.202 g of an organic sample that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen produce 0.361g carbon dioxide and 0.147 g water. If the relative molecular mass of the sample is 148, what is the molecular formula. Ans : C6H12O4
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MATTER
28
Units of concentration of a solution: A. B. C. D. E. Molarity Molality Mole Fraction Percentage by Mass Percentage byVolume
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MATTER
29
A. Molarity (M)
The number of moles of solute per cubic decimetre (dm3) or litre (L) of solution.
moles of solute (mol) molarity, M = 3 volume of solution (dm ) Unit : mol dm 3 or mol L1 or molar
Note: 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 1L = 1000 mL
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Example
Calculate the molarity of a solution of 1.71 g sucrose (C12 H 22 O 11 ) dissolved in a 0.5 L of water. [Ar H = 1, C = 12, O = 16 ] Solution, Molar mass of sucrose = (12x2) + 22 + (11x16) = 342 g mol −1
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MATTER
31
Cont…
mass Number of mole of sucrose = molar mass 1.71 g = 342 g mol −1 = 0.005 mol mole of sucrose molarity of solution sucrose = volume of solution 0.005 mol = 0.5 L = 0.01 mol L1
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Exercises
How many grams of potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7 required to prepare a solution of 250 mL with 2.16 M? [Ar K = 39.1, Cr = 52, O = 16 ] Ans : 158.87
A ,matriculat student ion prepareda solution dissolving by 0.586 of sodiumcarbonate, 2CO 3 in 250 cm3 of water. g Na Calculate itsmolarity? [Ar Na = 23 C = 12, O = 16 ] ,
3 Ans: 0.0221 moldm
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MATTER
33
B. Molality (m)
Molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent
moles of solute (mol) molality, m = mass of solvent (kg) unit :
mol kg
1
or molal or m
Note: Mass of solution
Volume
=
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of solution ≠MATTER
mass of solute + mass of solvent volume of solvent
34
Example 1
Calculate the molality of sulphuric acid solution containing 24.4 g of sulphuric acid in 198 g of water? [molar mass H 2 SO 4 = 98.08 g mol ]
1
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MATTER
35
Solution : n H SO
2 4
mass = molar mass 24.4 g = 98.08 g mol −1 = 0.2488 mol
moles of solute (mol) Molality of H 2 SO 4 = mass of solvent (kg) 0.2488 mol = 0.198 kg = 1.26 m
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Example 2
What is the molal concentration of a solution prepared by dissolving 0.30 mol of CuCl 2 in 40.0 mol of water? [molar mass H 2 O = 18.02 g mol ]
1
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MATTER
37
Solution : nH O
2
mass = molar mass = 40.0 mol x 18.02 gmol −1 = 720.8 g or 7208 kg
mass of H 2 O
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moles of solute (mol) Molality of H 2 O = mass of solvent (kg) 0.3 mol = 0.7208 kg = 0.416 m
MATTER
38
Exercises
What is the molality of a solution containing 7.78 g of urea [(NH 2 ) 2 CO] in 203 g water? Ans : 0.639 m
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MATTER
39
A solution containing 121.8 g of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 per litre has a density of 1.107 g mL . Calculate its molal concentration. Ans : 0.653 m
 1
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MATTER
40
C. Mole Fraction (X)
Mole
fraction is the ratio of the number of moles of one component to the total number of moles of all component present.
moles of A mole fraction of component A, X A = total number of moles of all component nA XA = ntotal
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MATTER
41
It
is always smaller than 1
The
total mol fraction in a mixture (solution) is equal to one. XA + XB + XC = 1
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MATTER
42
Example 1
What is the mole fraction of CuCl 2 in a solution prepared by dissolving 0.30 mol of CuCl 2 in 40.0 mol of water? [molar mass H 2 O = 18.02 g mol ]
1
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MATTER
43
Solution : nCuCl X CuCl = n total
2
2
0.3 = 0.3 + 40 = 0.007
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XHO =
2
nH O
2
n total
40 = 0.3 + 40 = 0.993
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XCuCl2 + XH2O = 1 XH2O = 1− 0.007 = 0.093
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Example 2
A solution is prepared by mixing 55 g of toluene, C 7 H 8 and 55 g of bromobenzene C 6 H 5 Br. What is the mole fraction of each component? [Ar C = 12.01, H = 1.01, Br = 79.9]
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MATTER
47
Step1: nC7H8 = 55 7(12.01) 8(1.01) + 55 92.15
Step2 : nC6H5Br = 55 6(12.01) 5(1.01) 79.90 + + 55 157.55
=
=
= 0.5969 mol
= 0.3491 mol
Step3 : XC7H8 0.5969 = 0.5969 0.3491 + = 0.63
Step4 : XC 6H5Br = 0.3491 0.5969 0.3491 +
= 0.37
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MATTER
48
D. Percentage by Mass (%w/w)
Percentage by mass is defined as the percentage of the mass of solute per mass of solution.
%w
mass of solute = x100 w mass of solution
note: mass of solution mass of solute mass of solvent = +
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MATTER
49
Example 1
A sample of 0.892 g of potassium chloride, KCl is dissolved in 54.3 g of water. What is percentage by mass in the solution?
Solution : %w w = = mass of solute x100 mass of solution 0.892 x100 0.892+ 543 .
= 1.61%
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MATTER
50
Example 2
Calculate the amount of water (in grams) that must be added to 5.00 g of urea in the preparation of a 16.2 percent by mass solution.
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MATTER
51
Solution : %w w = mass of solute x100 mass of solution 5 x100 mass of solution
16.2 = mass of solution =
5 x100 16.2
= 30.86 g mass of solution mass of solute mass of solvent = + 30.86 = 5.00 mass of solvent + = 25.86g ∴ mass of solvent 30.86 5.00 = 
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MATTER
52
Exercises
1. How many grams of NaOH and water are needed to prepare 250.0 g of 1.00% NaOH solution? Ans : 2.50 g ; 247.5 g
2. Hydrochloric acid can be purchased as a solution of 37% HCl. What is the mass of this solution contains 7.5 g of HCl? Ans : 20.27 g
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MATTER
53
E. Percentage By Volume (%V / V)
Percentage by volume is defined as the percentage of volume of solute in milliliter per volume of solution in milliliter.
%V volume of solute (mL) = x 100 V volume of solution (mL)
note : mass of solution Density of solution = volume of solution
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Example
A 200mL of perfume contains 28 mL of alcohol. What is the % by volume of alcohol in this solution?
Solution : %V volume of alcohol (mL) x 100 V volume of solution (mL) 28 = x 100 200 = 14 % =
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MATTER
55
1.2.3 Balancing Chemical Equation
A
chemical equation shows a chemical reaction using symbols for the reactants and products. The formulae of the reactants are written on the left side of the equation while the products are on the right.
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MATTER
56
Example:
xA
+
yB
zC
+
wD
Reactants
Products
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MATTER
57
The total number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides in a balanced equation. The number x, y, z and w, showing the relative number of molecules reacting, are called the stoichiometric coefficients. The methods to balance an equation:
Inspection Method
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58
Inspection Method
Write down the unbalanced equation. Write the correct formulae for the reactants and products. Balance the metallic element, followed by nonmetallic atoms. Balance the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Check to ensure that the total number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of equation.
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MATTER
59
Example
Balance the chemical equation by applying the inspection method.
NH3 + CuO → Cu + N2 + H2O
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MATTER
60
Exercise
1.
Balance the chemical equation below by applying inspection method. a. b. d. Fe(OH)3 + H2SO4 → Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O C6H6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O ClO2 + H2O → HClO3 + HCl
c. N2H4 + H2O2 → HNO3 + H2O
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MATTER
61
1.2.4 Redox Reaction
Redox
reaction is a reaction that involves both reduction and oxidation.
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MATTER
62
Oxidation The
substance loses one or more elactrons. Increase in oxidation number Act as an reducing agent (reductant)
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MATTER
63
Reduction The
substance gains one or more elactrons. decrease in oxidation number Act as an oxidising agent (oxidant)
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MATTER
64
Oxidation numbers of any atoms can be determined by applying the following rules:
In a free element , as an atom or a molecule the oxidation number is zero. Example: Na = 0 Cl2 = 0 Br2 Mg = = 0 0 O2 = 0
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MATTER
65
For monoatomic ion, the oxidation number is equal to the charge on the ion. Example: Na+ = +1 Mg2+ = +2 Al3+ = +3 S2 = 2
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MATTER
66
Fluorine and other halogens always have oxidation number of 1 in its compound. Only have a positive number when combine with oxygen. Example: Oxidation number of F in NaF = 1 Oxidation number of Cl in HCl = 1 Oxidation number of Cl in Cl2O7 = +7
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MATTER
67
Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in its compound except in metal hydrides which hydrogen has an oxidation number of 1 Example: Oxidation number of H in HCl = +1 Oxidation number of H in NaH = 1 Oxidation number of H in MgH2 = 1
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MATTER
68
Oxygen has an oxidation number of 2 in most of its compound. Example:
Oxidation number of O in MgO Oxidation number of O in H2O = = 2 2
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MATTER
69
However there are two exceptional cases:  in peroxides, its oxidation number is 1 Example: Oxidation number of O in H2O2 = 1 When combine with fluorine, posses a positive oxidation number Example: Oxidation number of O in OF2 =
+2
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MATTER
70
In neutral molecule, the sum of the oxidation number of all atoms that made up the molecule is equal to zero. Example: Oxidation number of H2O = 0 Oxidation number of HCl Oxidation number of KMnO4 = = 0 0
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MATTER
71
For polyatomic ions, the total oxidation number of all atoms that made up the polyatomic ion must be equal to the nett charge of the ion. Example:
Oxidation number of KMnO4Oxidation number of Cr2O72Oxidation number of NO3= = = 1 2 1
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MATTER
72
Example : Assign the oxidation number of Cr in Cr2O72. Solution : Cr2O7 = 2 2 Cr + 7 (2) = 2 2 Cr = + 12 Cr = + 6
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MATTER
73
Exercise
Assign the oxidation number of Mn in the following chemical compounds. i. MnO2 ii. MnO4Assign the oxidation number of Cl in the following chemical compounds. i. KClO3 ii. Cl2O72Assign the oxidation number of following: i. Cr in K2Cr2O7 ii. U in UO22+ iii.C in C2O42MATTER 74
7.
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1.2.4.1 Balancing Redox Reaction
Redox
reaction may occur in acidic and basic solutions. the steps systematically so that equations become easier to balance.
Follow
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MATTER
75
Balancing Redox Reaction In Acidic Solution Fe2+ + MnO4 → Fe3+ + Mn2+
3.
Divide the equation into two half reactions, one involving oxidation and the other reduction i. Fe2+ → Fe3+ ii.MnO4 → Mn2+
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MATTER
76
1.
Balance each halfreaction a. first, balance the element other than oxygen and hydrogen i. Fe2+ → Fe3+ ii. MnO4 → Mn2+
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MATTER
77
b.
second, balance the oxygen atom by adding H2O and hydrogen by adding H+ i. Fe2+ → Fe3+ ii. MnO4 + 8H+ → Mn2+ + 4H2O
c.
then, balance the charge by adding electrons to the side with the greater overall positive charge. i. Fe2+ → Fe3+ + 1e ii. MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O
MATTER 78
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3. Multiply each halfreaction by an interger, so that number of electron lost in one halfreaction equals the number gained in the other. i. 5 x (Fe2+ → Fe3+ + 1e) 5Fe2+ → 5Fe3+ + 5e ii. MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O 4. Add the two halfreactions and simplify where possible by canceling species appearing on both sides of the equation. i. 5Fe2+ → 5Fe3+ + 5e ii. MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O ____________________________________________ 5Fe2+ + MnO4 + 8H+ → 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O
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MATTER
79
Check the equation to make sure that there are the same number of atoms of each kind and the same total charge on both sides.
5Fe2+ + MnO4 + 8H+ Total charge reactant = 5(+2) + (1) + 8(+1) = + 10  1 + 8 = +17 → 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O
Total charge product = 5(+3) + (+2) + 4(0) = + 15 + (+2) = +17
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MATTER
80
Example: In Acidic Solution
C2O42 + MnO4 + H+ → CO2 + Mn2+ + H2O Solution: i. Oxidation ii. Reduction 2. i. C2O42 → 2CO2 ii. MnO4 + 8H+ → Mn2+ + 4H2O 3. i. C2O42 → 2CO2 + 2e ii. MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e→ Mn2+ + 4H2O
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: :
C2O42 → CO2 MnO4 → Mn2+
4. i. ii.
5 x (C2O42 → 2CO2 + 2e) → 5C2O42 → 10CO2 + 10e 2 x (MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e→ Mn2+ + 4H2O) → 2MnO4 + 16H+ + 10e→ 2Mn2+ + 8H2O
5. i. ii.
5C2O42 → 10CO2 + 10e 2MnO4 + 16H+ + 10e→ 2Mn2+ + 8H2O
_________________________________________________ 5C2O42 + 2MnO4 + 16H+ → 10CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O
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MATTER
82
Balancing Redox Reaction In Basic Solution
Firstly balance the equation as in acidic solution . Then, add OH to both sides of the equation so that it can be combined with H+ to form H2O. The number of hydroxide ions (OH) added is equal to the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in the equation.
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MATTER
83
Example: In Basic Solution
Cr(OH)3 + IO3 + OH → CrO32 + I + H2O Solution: i. Oxidation ii. Reduction 2. : : Cr(OH)3 → CrO32IO3 → I
i. Cr(OH)3 → CrO32 + 3H+ ii. IO3 + 6H+ → I + 3H2O
3.
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i. Cr(OH)3 → CrO32 + 3H+ + 1e ii. IO3 + 6H+ + 6e → I + 3H2O
MATTER 84
i. 6 x (Cr(OH)3 → CrO32 + 3H+ + 1e) → 6Cr(OH)3 → 6CrO32 + 18H+ + 6e ii. IO3 + 6H+ + 6e → I + 3H2O
5.
i. 6Cr(OH)3 → 6CrO32 + 18H+ + 6e ii. IO3 + 6H+ + 6e → I + 3H2O ________________________________________________ 6Cr(OH)3 + IO3 → 6CrO32 + I + 12H+ + 3H2O
6. 7.
6Cr(OH)3 + IO3 + 12OH → 6CrO32 + I + 12H+ + 3H2O + 12OH6Cr(OH)3 + IO3 + 12OH → 6CrO32 + I + 15H2O
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MATTER
85
Exercise
Balance the following redox equations: a. In Acidic Solution i. Cu + NO3 + H+→ Cu2+ + NO2 + H2O ii. iii. b. MnO4 + H2SO3 → Mn2+ + SO42 + H2O + H+ Zn + SO42 + H+ → Zn2+ + SO2 + H2O
In Basic Solution i. ClO + S2O32 → Cl + SO42ii. iii. Cl2 → ClO3 + ClNO2 → NO3 + NO
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MATTER
86
1.2.5 Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry
is the quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
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MATTER
87
Example:
CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) → CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
1 mole of CaCO3 reacts with 2 moles of HCl to yield 1 mole of CaCl2, 1 mole of CO2 and 1 mole of H2O.
Stoichiometry can be used for calculating the species we are interested in during a reaction.
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MATTER
88
Example 1
How many moles of hydrochloric acid, HCl do we need to react with 0.5 moles of zinc?
Solution : Zn (s) + 2HCl (l) → ZnCl 2 (s) + H 2 (g) From the equation, 1 mole of Zn reacts with 2 mol of HCl 0.5 x 2 ∴ 0.5 mole of Zn react with mol of HCl 1 1 mol HCl
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MATTER
89
Example 2
How many moles of H2O will be formed when 0.25 moles of C2H5OH burns in oxygen?
Solution : C 2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H O 2 From equation, the 1mol of C 2H5OH gives 3 molesof H2O ∴ 0.25mol of C 2H5OH gives X molesof H2O 0.25x 3 1
MATTER 90
X=
= 0.75 mol H2O
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Exercise 1
A 16.50 mL 0.1327 M KMnO4 solution is needed to oxidise 20.00mL of a FeSO4 solution in an acidic medium. What is the concentration of the FeSO4 solution? The net ionic equation is:
5Fe 2+ + MnO4 +8H+ Answer : 0.5474 M Mn 2+ +5Fe 3+ +4H2O
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MATTER
91
Exercise 2
How many mililitres of 0.112 M HCl will react exactly with the sodium carbonate in 21.2 mL of 0.150 M Na2CO3 according to the following equation?
2HCl(aq)+Na2CO3(aq) Answer : 56.8 mL 2NaCl(aq)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)
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MATTER
92
1.2.5.1 Limiting Reactant
A
limiting reactant is the reactant that is completely consumed in a reaction and limits the amount of products formed. excess reactant is the reactant that is not completely consumed in a reaction and remains at the end of the reaction.
An
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MATTER
93
Example 1
S + 3F2 → SF6 If 4 mol of S reacts with 10 mol of F2 , which of the two reactants is the limiting reagent?
Solution : From the equation, 1 mol of S reacts with 3 moles of F2 ∴ 4 mol of S reacts with X moles of F2 4x3 X= 1 = 12 mol F2 Compare the n F needed (12 mol) with the n F (10 mol) available
2 2
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in the question. F2 is in limit, ∴ F2 is the limiting reactant.
MATTER
94
Example 2
C is prepared by reacting A and B : A + 5B → C In one process, 2 mol of A react with 9 mol of B. d. Which is the limiting reactant? e. Calculate the number of mole(s) of C? f. How much of the excess reactant (in mol) is left at the end of the reaction?
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MATTER
95
Solution A : From equation, the 1 mol of A reacts with5 molesof B ∴ 2 mol of A reacts withX molesof B 2 x5 1
X=
= 10 mol H2O Compare thenB needed (10mol) with the nB (9mol) available in the question. is in limit,∴ Bis thelimiting B reactant.
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MATTER
96
Solution B : The amountof product formedreliesof themolesof B, thelimiting reactant. From equation, the 5 mol of B produce with molesof C 1 ∴ 9 mol of B produce withX molesof C 9 x1 5
X=
= 1.8 mol C
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MATTER
97
Solution C : A is theexcess reactant. From equation, the 5 mol of B produce with molesof A 1 ∴ 9 mol of B produce withX molesof C 9 x1 X= 5 = 1.8 mol A The amountexcess reactant 2 1.8= 0.2 mol A =
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Percentage yield
The
percentage yield is the ratio of the actual yield (obtained from experiment) to the theoretical yield (obtained from stoichiometry calculation) multiply by 100%
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MATTER
99
Percentage yield
=
actual yield x 100% theoretical yield
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MATTER
100
Exercise
In a certain experiment, 14.6g of SbF3 was allowed to react with CCl4 in excess. After the reaction was finished, 8.62g of CCl2F2 was obtained. 3 CCl4 + 2 SbF3 3 CCl2F2 + 2 SbCl3
[ Ar Sb = 122, F = 19, C= 12, Cl = 35.5 ]
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What was the theoretical yield of CCl2F2 in grams ?
b) What was the percentage yield of CCl2F2 ? Ans : a) 11.6 g b) 74.31 %
11/05/08
MATTER
101
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