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IMPROVING PUMP RELIABILITY
Maintenance vs. Capital
What does a pump actually cost ? Most plants regard the pump as a commodity... purchased from the lowest bidder with little consideration for: The operation and maintenance cost of the pump over its life cycle... which could be 20 - 30 years Costs to be considered: Spare parts (inventory costs) Operation downtime (lost production) Labor to repair (maintenance costs) Power consumption based on pump efficiency Environmental, disposal, and recycle costs
00.2.000/. 1.or more per incident ( parts and labor) If MTBF was improved from 1 to 2 years for a pump in a tough application Results in savings of Rs.per year over the life of the pump .TRUE PUMP COSTS Repair costs can easily exceed the price of a new pump (several times) over its life of 20 30 years Documented Pump failures cost Rs.000/.00.
Poor Suction and Discharge Piping Design 5. Impeller Balance (Mechanical and Hydraulic) 3. Pipe Strain / Thermal Expansion 6 Impeller Clearance 7. Insufficient NPSH 4.WHY PUMPS AND SEALS FAIL MECHANICAL Affects Bearings. Pump Design and Manufacturing Tolerances 2. Abrasion -INTERNAL 1. Operation off the BEP 2. Mechanical Seal Design . Bearings and seals 1. Coupling Misalignment 3. Poor Lubrication / Oil Contamination 3. High Temperature 2. Seals and Shafts -EXTERNAL 1. Corrosion 4. Foundation and Baseplate ENVIRONMENTAL Affects Wet End Components. Erosion 5.
G. seal. temp. shutoff Product changes: viscosity.HOW ARE FAILURES INITIATED? Installation Piping system & Pipe Strain Alignment Mechanical Seal installation Foundation System: cavitation. S. dry running. Seal controls: flush. cooling Pump.. metallurgy selection Operational Misapplication .
.RADIAL LOAD Operation of a pump away from the BEP results in higher radial loads .P FLOW . creating vibration and shaft deflection H E A D B.E..
Operation at capacities higher or lower than the BEP Pressure distribution is not uniform resulting in radial thrust on the impeller Magnitude and direction of radial thrust changes with capacity (and pump specific gravity) . uniform pressures exist around the volute at the design capacity (BEP) Resulting in low radial thrusts and minimal deflection.Radial Forces By design.
elbows and valves System head variations Change in suction pressure.SHAFT DEFLECTION Most pumps do not operate at BEP: Due to improper pump selection (oversized) Changing process requirements (throttling) Piping changes Addition of more pipe. discharge head req¶d Buildup in pipes Filter plugged Automatic control valve shuts off pump flow Change in viscosity of fluid Parallel operation problems (starving one pump .
. cm) B .cm) B = IMPELLER WIDTH (in..Kg) D K = THRUST FACTOR H = HEAD (ft.31 F (lbs.Impeller Radial Force At Any Flow F=KxHxSxD xB 2.. m) S = SPECIFIC GRAVITY D= IMPELLER DIAMETER (in.
K vs.2 1000 (20) 0.5 Ns (SI) 0.4 3500 (71) 0.1 500 (10) 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 PERCENT CAPACITY .3 2000 (40) K 1500 (27) 0.SPECIFIC SPEED . CAPACITY 0.
POINT . POINT H = HEAD IN FEET AT BEST EFF.PUMP SPECIFIC SPEED CLASSIFIES IMPELLERS ON THE BASIS OF PERFORMANCE AND PROPORTIONS REGARDLESS OF SIZE OR SPEED FUNCTION OF IMPELLER PROPORTIONS SPEED IN RPM AT WHICH AN IMPELLER WOULD OPERATE IF REDUCED PROPORTIONALLY IN SIZE TO DELIVER 1 GPM AND TOTAL HEAD OF 1 FOOT DESIGNATED BY SYMBOL Ns Ns = RPM(GPM)1/2 H3/4 RPM = SPEED IN REVOLUTIONS / MINUTE GPM = GALLONS /MINUTE AT BEST EFF.
POINT .PUMP SPECIFIC SPEED (Metric) CLASSIFIES IMPELLERS ON THE BASIS OF PERFORMANCE AND PROPORTIONS REGARDLESS OF SIZE OR SPEED FUNCTION OF IMPELLER PROPORTIONS SPEED IN RPM AT WHICH AN IMPELLER WOULD OPERATE IF REDUCED PROPORTIONALLY IN SIZE TO DELIVER 1 M3/h AND TOTAL HEAD OF 1 M DESIGNATED BY SYMBOL Ns Ns = RPM(m3/h )1/2 H3/4 RPM = SPEED IN REVOLUTIONS / MINUTE m3/h = CUBIC METERS / HOUR AT BEP H = HEAD IN METERS AT BEST EFF.
000 RADIAL-VANE FRANCIS-VANE MIXED FLOW AXIAL FLOW .000 10. POWER EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY HEAD. SPECIFIC SPEED HEAD. POWER EFFICIENCY HEAD POWER CAPACITY CAPACITY CAPACITY CENTRIFUGAL VERTICAL TURBINE AXIAL FLOW SPECIFIC SPEED.000 15.000 2.PUMP TYPE VS. ns (Single Suction) 10 20 40 60 120 200 300 SI US 500 1.000 3. POWER EFFICIENCY HEAD.000 6.
RADIAL FORCES ON IMPELLER BEP RADIAL LOAD CUTWATER 125% FLOW BEP 100% 50% % CAPACITY of BEP 150% SHUTOFF 0% Length of Line = Force .
THE IMPORTANCE OF ALIGNMENT Any degree of misalignment between the motor and the pump shaft will cause vibration in the pump. Every revolution of the coupling places a load on the pump shaft and thrust bearing At 2900 RPM. there will be 2900 pulses per minute applied to the shaft and bearing .
MISALIGNMENT Pipe strain Thermal growth Poor foundation / base plate Improper initial alignment. System vibration / cavitation Soft foot on motor .
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH) NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) Pressure in terms of head above vapour pressure at the inlet / eye of the impeller is known as NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) Pressure in terms of head above vapour pressure available at the inlet / eye of the impeller is known as NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head Available) NPSH available .
NPSH required Pressure in terms of head above vapour pressure required at the inlet / eye of the impeller to avoid cavitation is known as NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required) NPSH available must always be > NPSH required by a minimum of 3-5 feet (1-1.5m) margin .NPSH cont.
CAVITATION Results if the NPSH available is less than the NPSH required Occurs when the pressure at any point inside the pump drops below the vapor pressure corresponding to the temperature of the liquid The liquid vaporizes and forms cavities of vapor Bubbles are carried along in a stream until a region of higher pressure is reached where they collapse or implode with tremendous shock on the adjacent wall Sudden rush of liquid into the cavity created by the collapsed vapor bubbles causes mechanical destruction (cavitation erosion or pitting) .
but farther upstream at the point where the implosion occurs Pressures up to 150.000 Kpa) .000.CAVITATION cont.000 psi have been estimated at the implosion (1. Efficiency will be reduced as energy is consumed in the formation of bubbles Water @ 70oF (20oC)will increase in volume about 54.000 times when vaporized Erosion and wear do not occur at the point of lowest pressure where the gas pockets are formed.
FRICTION. ENTRANCE LOSS AT VANE TIPS INCREASING PRESSURE DUE TO IMPELLER POINT OF LOWEST PRESSURE WHERE VAPORIZATION STARTS INCREASING PRESSURE A B C POINTS ALONG LIQUID PATH D E .RELATIVE PRESSURES IN THE PUMP SUCTION E D A B C ENTRANCE LOSS FRICTION TURBULENCE.
Pvap.Z .Hf Correct for specific gravity All terms in ³feet (meters) absolute´ .NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD AVAILABLE Hf PAtmospheric Z (friction in suction pipe) NPSH Available = P Atm. . pressure .
Rise Low Flow Cavitation Low Brg . & Seal Life Flow .Results of Operating Off BEP High Temp. & Seal Life Discharge Recirculation Head Reduced Impeller Life Suction Recirculation BEP Cavitation Low Brg .
= Specific heat of fluid Ex.. HPso = HP (KW) @ shutoff from curve Gal.: Pump takes100HP (75KW) @s.H.= HP (KW)so x K Gal (m3) x S. (m3) = Liquid in casing S. A recirculation line is a possible solution to the low flow or shut off operation problems. x S. .TEMPERATURE RISE Overheating of the liquid in the casing can cause: Rubbing or seizure from thermal expansion Vaporization of the liquid and excessive vibration Accelerated corrosive attack by certain chemicals Temperature rise per minute at shutoff is: (T oF (oC) / min.03m3) water (at 16 deg C) would reach boiling in 2 min...G. . = Specific gravity of fluid S.H.8 gal casing (. 6.G.o.
7 X10-6 X LENGTH IN INCHES T x 17.7X10-6 IN/IN/°F OR 17.245 MM 0.470 MM T° F 100 F 200 F 300 F 400 F 500 F 600 F T° C 55 C 110 C 165 C 220 C 275 C 330 C INCHES 0.735 MM 0.0388 IN 0.5X10-6 X LENGTH IN MILLIMETERS EXPANSION MILLIMETERS 0.0097 IN 0.0190 IN 0.490 MM 0.900 MM 1.0582 IN .230 MM 1.5 X10-6 MM/MM/°C CALCULATION IS T x 9.0485 IN 0.CASING GROWTH DUE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE ROTATION 10 inches 250 mm COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR 316 S/S IS 9.0291 IN 0.
Important for maximum efficiency .015´ (.IMPELLER CLEARANCE Critical for open impellers Normal setting .Set impeller .002´ (.Potential rubbing problem causes vibration and high bearing loads .38mm) off front cover High temperature requires more clearance .05mm) add¶l clearance for every 500 F (280C) over ambient temp.
Weight offset from center of impeller .IMPELLER BALANCE MECHANICAL .Vane in eye offset from impeller C/L .Balance by metal removal from vane HYDRAULIC .Careful machining setup can help .Investment cast impeller eliminates problem .Results in uneven flow paths thru impeller .Variation in vane thickness .
TYPICAL ANSI (or DIN) PROCESS PUMP Small dia. shaft with excessive overhang Stuffing box designed for packing Shaft sleeve Light to medium duty bearings Rubber lip seals protecting the bearings Snap ring retains thrust bearing in housing Shaft adjustment requires dial indicator Double row thrust bearing Cast jacket on bearing frame for cooling Small oil reservoir .
of packing rings and space for gland and repack accessibility Clearance between shaft and box bore based on packing cross-section If most pumps today use mechanical seals why do we continue to use inferior designs made for packing ?? .ANSI (ISO/DIN) STANDARD PUMPS Industry standards for dimensions based on requirements for packed pumps Shaft overhang a function of no.
BEARING OIL SEALS Rubber Lip Seals Provided To Protect Bearings in standard ANSI pumps Have life of less than four months Groove shaft in first 30 days of operation External contamination causes bearing failure .
but not for pumps . of operation PUMP 24 hrs.LIP SEAL LIFE AUTOMOBILE 100. = 2500 hrs./day x 365 days / year = 8760 hours 60% of lip seals fail in under 2000 hours Lip seals may be fine for automobiles.000 Miles @ 40 Miles /hr.
potential loose bearing .THRUST BEARING SNAP RING Thrust bearings in standard ANSI pumps are held in place with a snap ring Snap ring material harder than bearing housing Wear in bearing housing results in potential bearing movement Difficult to remove and install If installed backwards .
SIMULTANEOUS DYNAMIC LOADS ON PUMP SHAFT Radial Thrust due to Impeller and Misalignment Coupling Impeller Radial Thrust Impeller Axial Thrust Hydraulically Induced Forces due to Recirculation & Cavitation Seal Axial Load from Misalignment and Impeller Motor Radial Thrust due to Impeller and Misalignment Hydraulic Imbalance .
1 and API 610 Limit radial deflection and runout of the shaft to 0.Cone shaped motion caused by unbalance Runout .under constant radial load in one direction Whip .I.Shaft bent or eccentricity between shaft sleeve and shaft It is possible to have all 3 events occurring simultaneously ANSI B73.R.05mm) Solid shafts are critical for pump reliability Eliminate sleeve runout Improved stiffness .002 T. at the stuffing box face(0.SHAFT DYNAMICS Radial movement of the shaft occurs in 3 forms: Deflection .
SHAFT DEFLECTION Shaft deflects because of unbalanced radial loads on the impeller Shaft revolves on own centerline even when deflected load is constant in direction and magnitude Shaft stays bent as long as operating conditions remain the same .
Shaft Whip Shaft changes 180o from its centerline every revolution Usually caused by unbalanced impeller Heavy side of impeller on same side of shaft Whip and deflection can occur at same time Moved to one side by the amount the shaft deflects .
OPTIMUM PUMP DESIGN OBJECT: Create a better environment and greater stability for the dynamic pump components (seals and bearings) «.to withstand the damaging forces inflicted upon them .
SHAFT STIFFNESS 500 Lbs. (225Kg) 500 Lbs. (225Kg) .
Derivation of Stiffness Ratio = Deflection of shaft P = Load I = Moment of Inertia E = Modulus of Elasticity L = Length of Overhang P = PL3 3EI = PL3 3E P D4 64 I= 4 D4 64 = L3 D4 L D cancel all common factors .
87" L 8" 8" 8" 8" 3 4 3 L L /D = 8 /(1.62)4 = 512/6.89 = 74 L /D = 8 /(1.75" 1.62" 1.75) = 512/9.50) = 512/5.87) = 512/12.23 = 42 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 .50" 1.Stiffness Ratio Examples D D 1.06 = 101 L3/D4 = 8 3/(1.38 = 55 L /D = 8 /(1.
23 = 42 L /D = 6 /(1.23 = 17 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 .87" L 8" 6" L /D = 8 /(1.87) = 512/12.87) = 216/12.Stiffness Ratio Examples D L D 1.87" 1.
Stiffness Ratio Examples D D L L /D = 200 3 3 4 3 4 3 L 38mm 200mm 40mm 200mm 45mm 200mm 48mm 200mm / 38 4 = 8000000/2085136 = 3.95 = 8000000/5308416 = 1.0 is Adequate 3 / 48 .51 L/D<2.84 3/ 40 4 = 8000000/2560000 = 3.13 L /D = 200 L /D = 200 L /D = 200 3 4 4 3 / 45 4 4 = 8000000/4100625 = 1.
4 Considered Adequate .64 48mm 150mm 3 / 484 L /D = 150 4 3 L/D < 2.51 = 3375000/5308416 = .Stiffness Ratio Examples D D 48mm L 200mm 3 L 4 4 = 200 3 / 48 L /D = 8000000/5308416 = 1.
4 (Metric) .MAXIMUM STIFFNESS RATIO L3 / D4 RATIO Less than 60 (Inch) Less than 2.
0 METRIC PERCENT OF BEP FLO W .2 1.4 < 1.4 to 3.2 2.EFFECTIVE PUMP OPERATIONAL ZONES PUMP CURVE BEP ZONE L3/D4 INCH HEAD A B C D 80 40 20 10 0 10 15 20 25 A B C D A B C D > 80 60 > 80 26 > 60 < 26 > 3.0 to 2.
ALIGNMENT EVERY TIME A PUMP IS TORN DOWN. THE MOTOR SHAFT AND PUMP SHAFT MUST BE REALIGNED UNPROFESSIONAL OPTION TO RE-ALIGN «USE A STRAIGHT EDGE PROFESSIONAL OPTION IS TO USE DIAL INDICATORSTO MINIMIZE TOTAL RUNOUT MODERN METHOD IS LASER ALIGNMENT WHICH IS VERY ACCURATE .
Drawbacks of Present Alignment Methods
All provide precision initial alignment Degree of accuracy varies Cost of system, training, and time involved in their use is dramatic Time consuming (possibly 2 workers, 4-8 hrs.) Difficult to compensate for high temperature applications Requires worker skill, dexterity, and training to achieve accurate results After pump startup, cannot insure continued alignment due to temperature, pipe strain, cavitation, water hammer, and vibration
Designed specifically for seals 20 Times greater fluid volume Provides superior cooling,cleaning, and lubrication for the seal Solids centrifuged away from seal Eliminate seal rub problems
Designed for packing Small radial clearances -Seal contacting bore Limited fluid capacity -Poor heat removal Easy to clog with solids
ELIMINATING SHAFT SLEEVES
REDUCES SEAL SIZE
Sleeves are necessary for packed pumps, but with today¶s new seals they serve no purpose Add no stiffness to shaft Run out tolerance between shaft and sleeve compounds motion of seal faces in addition to deflection and shaft run out already present Deflection must be a maximum of .002´ at the seal faces, yet faces are lapped within 2 helium light bands Deflection or motion at seal faces is 1000 times greater than the face flatness
no longer provide effective barrier against contamination Will groove shaft .BEARING OIL SEALS Three basic types: Lip seal Inexpensive. very effective when new Elastomeric construction Contact shaft and contributes to friction drag and temp. simple to install. rise in bearing area After 2000-3000 hours.
BEARING OIL SEALS Labyrinth seals Required by API 610 Non-contacting and non-wearing Unlimited life Effective for most types of contaminants Do not keep heavy moisture or corrosive vapors from entering the bearing frame (especially in static state) .
BEARING OIL SEALS Face seals and magnetic seals Protect bearings from possible immersion Good for moisture laden environment Expansion chamber should be used to accommodate changes in internal pressure and vapor volume completely enclosed system (can be submerged) Generate heat Limited life .
operation) ³Rating Life varies inversely as the cube of the applied load Reduction of impeller dia. will exceed ( millions of rev¶s or hrs.BEARING LIFE Bearing life calculations assume proper lubrication and an environment that protects the bearing from contamination The basic dynamic load rating ³C´ is the bearing load that will give a rating life of 1 million revolutions L10 Basic Rating Life is life that 90% of group of brgs. from maximum improves life calculation by the inverse ratio of the impeller diameters to the 6th power .
Actual life maybe 3 years Failures: -Fatigue due to excessive loads (20-50% of failure) -Lube failure .BEARING LIFE cont.Calculated life by design over 20 years .excessive temperatures & contaminants -Poor installation . 90% of all bearings will fail prematurely and not reach their rated L10 life .
BEARING LUBRICATION FAILURE OXIDATION Chemical reaction between oxygen & oil New compounds produced which deteriorate the life of oil and bearings Reaction rate increases with the presence of water and increases exponentially with temperature CONTAMINATION Water breaks down lube directly reducing brg.. life .003% water in oil reduces life of oil 50% Oil life decreases by 50% for every 20oF (11oC) rise in temp. above 140oF (60oC) .
SYNTHETIC Lower OILS in viscosity with temp. 300oF (160oC) -Does not oxidize (breakdown) At low temps.good fluidity boosts efficiency and reduces component wear during cold weather Achieves full lubrication quickly Offers longer life . change change -One synthetic can take place of several oils Provides good lube at high temps.less consumption Lasts 1.5-2 times longer than conventional oils Maintains lube properties with water contamination better than mineral oils ..
ANGULAR CONTACT BEARINGS Used as thrust bearing in pairs (also carry radial load) Mounted back to back (letters to letters) Provides maximum stiffness to shaft Avoid ball skidding under light loads Small preload eliminates potential Line to line design clearances Shaft fit provides preload Eliminates shaft end play Greater thrust capacity Required by API 610 Specification .
BEARING PRELOAD Pump radial bearings have positive internal clearance Thrust bearings can be either positive or negative clearance. Preload occurs when there is a negative clearance in the bearing Desirable to increase running accuracy Enhances stiffness Reduces running noise Provides a longer service life under proper applications .
BEARING CLEARANCES / PRELOAD LIFE Preload Clearance .
Specify proper pump design criteria to minimize the impact of mechanical and environmental influences.Goal: improved pump and Mechanical seal reliability Eliminate or reduce mechanical and environmental influences that cause pump and seal problems. Specify proper mechanical seal and environmental controls to maximize seal life .
Optimum pump design summary Low L3D4 ratio as possible Solid shaft ( no sleeves) Large bore seal chamber Large oil capacity bearing housing Angular contact thrust bearings Retainer cover to hold thrust bearing (no snap rings) Fin tube cooling for bearing housing Labyrinth seals Positive / precision shaft adjustment method Investment cast impellers Magnetic drain plugs in oil sump ³Centerline support for hot applications .
R. (.R.002´ T.0005´ (. and LD ratio) NPSH available to be at least 5 feet (1.3 spec.R.R.05mm) Seal chamber register concentric to shaft within .003´ T.08mm) Shaft end play less than .I.Requirements for proper emission control and maximum seal life Shaft runout at impeller within .015mm) .03mm) Coupling alignment within .I.13mm) Operation of the pump at or close to best efficiency point (definition dependent upon pump size.005´ T.I. speed. (.I. on rim & face (.5m) greater than NPSH required Proper foundation and baseplate arrangement Absolute minimum pipe strain on suction and discharge flanges All impellers dynamically balanced to ISO G 6. Face of seal chamber square to shaft within . (.001´ T.