Interworking Between Public Data Networks and the Internet A numbering perspective

ITU ³IP and Telecoms Interworking´ Workshop 25-27January 2000 Submitted by Peter Hicks Rapporteur ITU-T SG 7 Q3: Data Network Numbering Tel: + 613 9253 6308, Fax: + 613 9253 6777 email: p.hicks@trl.telstra.com.au
ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop, Jan 2000 1

Summary  



This presentation examines numbering and addressing issues associated with the interworking of Public Data Networks and the Internet. Interworking largely depends on being able to signal the ³called´ terminal¶s number or address This presentation does not attempt to solve all the technical or implementation problems but highlights the key issues that will either allow or prevent interworking to occur in the future.

ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop, Jan 2000 2

Jan 2000 3 . ATM) are connection oriented ± PVC or SVC is established between the originating terminal and the destination terminal before protocol data units (user data) are transferred. no call set up phase exists  IP connectionless ±  Is single-stage ³dialling´ possible or is two stage ³call setup´ required? ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. FR or ATM) & terminals (also known as hosts) on IP routed networks or the Internet  PDN Protocols (X. Frame Relay.Some Issues  Key requirement: ± Seamless interworking between terminals (DTEs) on Public Data Networks (X.25.25.

Jan 2000 4 .121 or E.164 number plus an IP address IP address only is dual numbering/addressing required?    What functionality is required in the gateway between PDNs and the Internet Where is the gateway located What QoS does the ³end-to-end´ connection achieve (This is not a numbering issue) ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.com.121 or E.au How will PDN terminals be identified ± ± ± ± X.164 number only X.blogs@acme.Some Issues (cont)   Can PDN terminals be identified by mnemonic address such as j.

(flat number structure) for networks numbered under E.121 and an E.121 number.125 may be carried in a specific field of the signalling protocol (not currently used for call set up) ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.also can use NSAP formats for ATM end system addresses The leading digits of an X.164 . a network ID code as per Rec X. Jan 2000 5 .identifies DTE point of attachment.164.164 numbers generally do not have a network ID code built in to the number.164 . ATM networks numbered under E. the Data Network Identification Code (DNIC) uniquely identifies a specific network E.121 or E.Numbering of Public Data Networks     Frame Relay networks numbered under either X.164 number identify the country where the network is located Network Identification ± ± ± within an X.

25 allows the called terminal to be identified by an ³alternative address´ which can be an IP address. X.36.164 number or NSAP address E.121 or E. a mnemonic address or an NSAP ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. ICD.164.2931 signalling) For Frame Relay the called terminal identified by: ± X.76 or Q.164 number or NSAP address only certain NSAP formats supported (embedded E. Jan 2000 6 .Call Set-up for Frame Relay & ATM Set   Call Setup message identifies the called terminal Called terminal¶s point of attachment carried in the called party information element (as per X. DCC)  For ATM the called terminal may be identified by: ± ±  X.

121 number embedded E.Use of NSAP to identify called terminal  NSAP Formats (see Rec X.213 Annex A) include: ± ± ± ± ± embedded X. Jan 2000 7 .164 number ICD (International Code Designator) Format DCC (Data Country Code) Format embedded IP address   Hence capability exists to signal an IP address However use of NSAPs to identify the called terminal requires additional intelligence in the switch to which the calling terminal is connected ± ± address resolution entity required requires a ³large´ data base ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.

General Interworking Scenario Point of attachment to public data network defined by X.121 or E. Jan 2000 8 .164 number Term A Public Data Network (X. ATM) IWF INTERNET Term B Terminal identified by IP address ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. FR.25.

Notes on General Interworking Scenario        Requirement is for Terminal A to be able to send data to Terminal B and for Terminal B to be able to send data to Terminal A at any time initiated by either party Terminal A identified by X.121 or E. Jan 2000 9 .164 number Terminal B identified by an IP address Does Terminal A need to have an IP Address? What protocol stack does Terminal A use? What functionality is required in the IWF ± address resolution or protocol translation ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.

25. FR or ATM) FR or ATM Connection Edge Router Edge Router FR.Interworking via an Internet Service Provider Point of attachment to public data network defined by X.164 number Term A Public Data Network ( X. Jan 2000 10 Edge Router Term B Terminal B identified only by IP address .121 or E. ATM or leased line Connection to Internet Backbone INTERNET Internet Service Provider ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.

Jan 2000 11 .Notes on Interworking via an Internet Service Provider (#1) Case A: Terminal A sending data to Terminal B  Terminal A must subscribe to the service provided by an Internet Service Provider  Terminal A sets up SVC or PVC connection to Internet Service Provider.121 number IP address is allocated to terminal A by the ISP » Can this address be ³permanent´ or use made of DHCP?   IP packets encapsulated as Frame Relay or ATM user Data and sent to the Internet Service Provider Internet Service Provider routes IP packets into the Internet for forwarding to Terminal B ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. ± ± Edge router of the ISP identified by X.

Jan 2000 12 .can use be made of Inverse ARP?  How does the Internet ³know´ the location of terminal A ± if Terminal B receives an IP packet from Terminal A. does this imply that the reverse path and IP Address for Terminal A is known ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.Notes on Interworking via an Internet Service Provider (#2) Case B: Terminal B sending data to Terminal A  What happens if Terminal A¶s connection to the Internet Service Provider is ³inactive´  What is the IP address for Terminal A  How does Terminal B know what Terminal A¶s IP address is .

What¶s required for efficient routing from the IP network to a terminal on the PDN?  How is the PDN terminal identified ± ± ± Does the terminal have a dual address ie.121 or E.164 number plus an IP address what mechanisms are there available for carrying an X. X.121 or E. Jan 2000 13 .121 or E.164 number  What additional functionality is required in gateway or border routers that allows identification of the PDN ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.164 number within the address block of an IP packet what extensions in IP addressing are needed to ³signal´ an X.

121=22889089495369 X.121= 2288 914 308 3270 X.X. ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.121= 313991556144 Network DNIC 3139 In order that IP data packets can be efficiently routed to end system terminals connected to public data networks.121=505292536308 Network DNIC 2288 Network DNIC 5052 I N T E R N E T IP Terminals X. Jan 2000 14 .121 number.Example showing interworking via gateway routers if the IP terminal could signal an X.121 Address IPv6 Network Layer PDN .121= 505291556144 X. the Gateway Routers connected to the various public data networks could advertise the DNIC to the border routers on the Internet: e.121=3134 908087788 X.g. DNIC = 2288.25 or Frame Relay IPv6 Network Layer X.121= 3134 908 949 5369 Interworking Gateway Routers Edge or Border Routers X.121=3134 908080136 Network DNIC 3134 X. The gateway routers would then need to establish the necessary connections to the PDN terminals based on the full X.

. Jan 2000 15 IWF IP PDU on IP encapsulation IP Terminal The IP Terminal has no knowledge that it is talking to a PDN DTE.Is there a requirement for service Interworking ? PDN / IP Service Interworking PDN DTE PDN PDU on PDN encapsulation The PDN Terminal has no knowledge that it is talking to a IP Terminal ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.

Typical Scenario for Service Interworking Video IWF R LAN IP terminal R LAN FR /ATM terminal Central Host IP FR / ATM Video Conference Server Private Network FR /ATM terminal ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. Jan 2000 16 .

FR or ATM) FR or ATM Connection Protocol translation & encapsulation Edge Router Edge Router FR. ATM or leased line Connection to Internet Backbone INTERNET Term B Service Interworking Gateway ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.25.164 number Term A Public Data Network ( X.121 or E. Jan 2000 17 Terminal B identified only by IP address .Service Interworking via a Gateway Point of attachment to public data network defined by X.

FR or ATM / IP Interworking Protocol Stacks Application Data PDU Voice PDU RFC Encap FR or ATM Physical FR/ATM DTE FR or ATM UNI Payload Application Data PDU Voice PDU RFC Encap FR or ATM Physical IP ? Implemt depend Physical IP ? Implemt depend Physical IP Terminal Interworking Gateway ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. Jan 2000 18 .

blogs@acme.Conclusions  The necessary code points within the FR signalling protocols enable a calling terminal on the PDN to identify an IP terminal (by use of an NSAP) in the call setup message.25 ³alternative addressing´ would enable the called party to be identified by a mnemonic address such j.au » » extensions required to FR and ATM signalling protocols required to facilitate interworking as demonstrated in the use email today  Two stage interworking from the PDN into the Internet is achievable today ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop. Jan 2000 19 .2931) to allow NSAP (embedded IP format ) to be supported features such as X. ± ± extensions required in ATM signalling (Rec Q.com.

Conclusions (cont)  Interworking from the IP world to the PDN appears to be constrained by the fact that an IP packet can not readily carry an X. Jan 2000 20 .121 or E.164 number to identify the destination terminal on the PDN  will require extensions in IP addressing or functionality to ³signal´ an X.121 or E.164 number ITU ³IP & Telecoms´ Interworking Workshop.121 or E.164 number ± ± No such functionality in IPv4 May be able to use IPV6 address extensions options to carry an OSI NSAP which contained the embedded X.

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