Shahzaib Gillani (083331) Usman Ahmed (091335)  

Ahmed Samiullah (091324) 

Mohsin Ihsan (******) Hassan Ahmed (083330) 


Š Š Š Š Š . balochi.Š Pakistan independence 14th Aug. pushto. km. Capital city ISLAMABAD. punjabi. 1947. It has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. Area of 796095 sq. Population is 170 million est. Major languages urdu. sindhi.

and 16 other official languages.Š Independence: August 15.29 million sq. Population : 1. English. Area: 3. km. Cities: Capital--New Delhi Languages: Hindi. 1947. Š Š Š Š .17 billion est.

India and Pakistan·s relation started spoiling from that day. Š Š . The partition triggered one of the greatest migrations of modern history.Š Partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics led to the creation of the sovereign states of Pakistan & India on 14 and 15 August 1947 respectively.

‡ Distribution of assets: Financial Assets Military Assets Š In June 1947. (17:5). the assets of British India world divided in the ratio of 17 to India and 5 to Pakistan. Indian promises weren·t fulfilled in military supplies as well and India didn·t send Pakistan its agreed share. Rest of the money wasn·t paid to Pak as a war had started in Kashmir. Pakistan had been awarded Rs 750 Million under the final settlement but Pak initially received only Rs 200 Million. Š Š Š .

Š Š Problems with princely states Demarcation of boundaries ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Punjab(amritsar/lahore) Bengal(west ban/east ban) Sindh(sindhi hindus) Hyderabad(nizam·s will) Junagarh(hindu maj/muslim ruler) Kashmir .

Š Kashmir was a princely state. ruled by a Hindu king. Muslim majority Maharaja·s will Distribution of land India 43% Pakistan 37% China 20% Š Š Š . Maharaja Hari Singh.


To the resolution pak will have no say in Jammu and Kashmir and India will retain minimum military presence.Š Kashmir war Kashmir War. Referendum ƒ . UN Security Council passed Resolution on 21 April 1948 regarding ceasefire in the region. ƒ Š Š Š Acc. lasted until 1948 India moved the issue to the UN Security Council.

Š Š Š . Indians refused for referendum. Not a single was accepted by India. UN gave 11 different proposals to resolve this issue.Š Pakistan agreed on referendum but did not draw its forces.

a widespread popular and armed insurgency started in Kashmir.Š In 1989. Beginning of the Mujahadeen insurgency ƒ Š Š Militants groups( Indian view) Freedom fighters( Pak view) ƒ . Disputes after 1987 elections.

which has committed human rights violations. Š .Š Peaceful protest movement alongside the insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir since 1989. according to the United Nations. specifically the Indian Military. Kashmiri·s have grievances with the Indian government.

In 2006 Al-Qaeda claim they have established a wing in Kashmir. stated that one of the reasons he was fighting America is because of its support of India on the Kashmir issue.Š Pakistani stance on Kashmir was effected by the events like 9/11. Š Š Š . In September 2009. Drone strike reportedly killed Ilyas Kashmiri(Al-Qaida).S. this worried the Indian government. a U. Osama bin Laden in 2002.

Š Events such as 9/11 put pressure on Pakistan to alter its position on terrorism. Presence of a neutral group(wants independence). Š Š Š Š Š . UN resolution on Kashmir is no longer relevant. Involvement of ISI to militant groups/freedom fighters. Pakistan image Secular to extremist.

Š Š Š Š Š Protests happened in previous years 08-09 as well. citing human rights abuses by indian troops Indian para-military forces fired live ammunition on the protesters. resulting in 112 deaths . BUT 2010 Kashmir unrest were a series of protests in muslim majority kashmir valley In response to ¶Quit Jammu and Kashmir movement(civil disobedience movement) Parties hurriat conference made this call to protest.

Š Expressed his intention to try to work with India and Pakistan to resolve this crises Issue needs to be sorted out bilaterally by India and Pakistan Š .


the ruler of princely state of Kashmir and Jammu signed an Instrument of Accession to the Indian union. Š Š . The war was initially fought by the forces of the princely state and tribal militias from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Facing the assault and a Muslim revolution in the Poonch and Mirpur area. sometimes known as the First Kashmir War. Indian and Pakistani armies entered the war subsequently.Š The India-Pakistan War of 1947-48.

.Š The state forces stationed in the border regions around Muzaffarabad and Domel were quickly defeated by tribal forces (some state forces mutinied and joined the them) and the way to the capital was open.

In the Poonch valley.Š India airlifted troops and equipment to Srinagar. where they reinforced the princely state forces. Š . tribal forces continued to surround state forces. established a defence perimeter and defeated the tribal forces on the outskirts of the city.

whose ruler. joined the invading tribal forces. who thereby obtained control of this northern region of the state. The tribal forces were also joined by troops from Chitral. had acceded to Pakistan.Š Gilgit. . the Mehtar of Chitral. the state paramilitary forces. called the Gilgit Scouts.

Š The Indians now started to get the upper hand in all sectors. Poonch was finally relieved after a siege of over a year. were finally defeated. who had previously made good progress. . The Gilgit forces in the High Himalayas.

1948.Š At this stage Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to ask UN to intervene. India and Pakistan signed the Karachi Agreement establishing a ceasefire line to be supervised by the military observers Š Š Š . After protracted negotiations a cease-fire was agreed to by both countries. which came into effect. A UN cease-fire was arranged for the 31 December 1948. which cut the road between Uri and Poonch. The terms of the cease-fire as laid out in a United Nations resolution of August 13. A few days before the cease-fire the Pakistanis launched a counter attack.


. tunnels and highways. with a view to create the conditions of an "armed insurrection" in Kashmir. the northernmost state of India. destroying bridges. and start a rebellion against Indian rule. harassing enemy communications. The plan was that commandos would mingle with the local populace and incite them to rebellion. Meanwhile guerrilla warfare would commence. logistic installations and headquarters as well as attacking airfields.Š Operation Gibraltar: Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir.

India swiftly launched counter attacks across the cease fire line.Š Resulted in the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War. attacking the Pakistan divisions in Azad Kashmir that had provided cover for the infiltrators. the intruders were detected by Indian forces in Kashmir. Despite the operational planning. Š Š .

Frustrated with the failure of Operation Gibraltar. This however resulted in more problems for Pakistan. as India countered by crossing the international border further south in Punjab. Š Š . Ayub Khan urgently launched Operation Grand Slam to contain the situation since there was no contingency planned in case of Gibraltar's failure.Š The Indian offensive resulted in defeat of Pakistani troops in the covert guerilla operation. starting the war of 1965.

Š India crossed the International Border on the Western front on September 6. As a result the United States requested a temporary ceasefire to allow it to evacuate its citizens in Lahore. These developments brought the Indian Army within the range of Lahore International Airport. marking an official beginning of the war. Attempt to cross the Canal was made over the bridge in the village of Barki. just east of Lahore. Š Š Š .

Š Tank battles: battles: The 1965 war witnessed some of the largest tank battles since World War 2. whilst halting Pakistan's counteroffensive on Amritsar. . Pakistan was outfought on the battlefield by India. which made progress into the Lahore-Sialkot sector.Š Aerial warfare: warfare: 1965 was a stalemate in terms of the air war with neither side able to achieve complete air superiority.

led by Premier Alexei Kosygin.Š The United States and the Soviet Union used significant diplomatic tools to prevent any further escalation in the conflict between the two South Asian nations. Where Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Agreement. 1966. hosted ceasefire negotiations in Tashkent. Š Š . Agreement agreeing to withdraw to pre-August lines no later than February 25. The Soviet Union.

praised the Pakistani magazine military's ability to hold of the much larger Indian Army. Additionally. it was clear that the Pakistanis were more than holding their own.Š TIME magazine reported that India held 690 mi2 of Pakistan territory while Pakistan held 250 mi2 of Indian territory in Kashmir and Rajasthan. BBC reported that the war served game changer in Pakistani politics. Pakistan had lost almost half its armor temporarily. Š Š Š . in fact. By just the end of the week. Newsweek magazine. however.


and marked the formal opening of hostilities of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. .Š Operation Chengiz Khan: That name was the code name assigned to the pre-emptive strikes carried out by the Pakistani Air Force on the forward airbases and radar installations of the Indian Air Force (IAF) on the evening of 3 December 1971.

Š March1971. Japan. EastPakistan (now Bangladesh) declared independence starting the Bangladesh Liberation War. and Europe. the Soviet Union. Š Š . Operation Searchlight Pakistan came underin creasing criticism from India.

intervention or support to the Mukti Bahini.Š However. the Mukti Bahini had started launching massive raids deep into East Pakistan with active support of the Indian Army troops. By October 1971. State of active undeclared war in the East by the end of November. when Indian and Mukti Bahini forces launched offensives on both the eastern and western borders of East Pakistan. Š Š . the United States and China showed little interest in the situation and actively opposed aid.

A second objective for the PAF was to conduct air interdiction against the supply routes for the Indian troops opposing Khan's proposed offensive. and the PAF's overriding priority was to give maximum support to this offensive.Š So Tikka Khan had proposed an offensive into India. Š Š . Pakistan decided to launch an offensive counter air strike codenamed Operation Chengiz Khan on Indian airbases.

the Indian Air Force struck back. but the Indian army successfully held their positions. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army's movements in the west and made some initial gains. Š Š Š . Full scale war start Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with Pakistan.Š As Indian Prime Minister Indira addressed the nation on radio shortly after midnight informing about the Pakistani attack.

including Pakistani soldiers and their East Pakistani civilian supporters. Š .Š The Surrender of Pakistani forces stationed in East Pakistan was signed at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka on 16 December 1971. India took approximately 90.000 prisoners of war.

Š The Soviet Union sympathized with the Bangladeshis. The USSR gave assurances to India that if a confrontation with the United States or China developed. it would take counter-measures. and supported the Indian Army and Mukti Bahini during the war. recognizing that the independence of Bangladesh would weaken the position of its rivals³the United States and China. Š .

and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States.W. Š Š . introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council calling for a cease-fire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and Pakistan. US ambassador to the United Nations George H. Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region.Š The United States supported Pakistan both politically and materially.


The war stripped Pakistan of more than half of its population and with nearly one-third of its army in captivity, clearly established India's military dominance of the subcontinent. General Yahya Khan surrendered power to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto who was sworn-in on 20 December 1971 as President and as the (first civilian) Chief Martial Law Administrator. A new and smaller western-based Pakistan emerged on 16 December 1971. Bangladesh became an independent nation, the world's third most populous Muslim state.




The Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan at It followed from the war between the two nations in that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh. The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations. It also conceived steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations. Most importantly, it bound the two countries "to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations´. India relesed 90,000 War prisoners of Pakistan.




India had established control over all of the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers. The conflict began in 1984 with India's successful Operation Meghdoot during which it wrested control of the Siachen Glacier from Pakistan and forced the Pakistanis to retreat west of the Saltoro Ridge.Š Siachen was the world·s highest battle field Siachen War is a military conflict between India and War. Kashmir. Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir. Ridge. Š Š Š .

Š Š Š Š .Š The conflict in Siachen stems from the incompletely demarcated territory on the map beyond the map coordinate known as NJ9842. Pakistan claimed that Pak lost 900 sq mile. mile India claimed that they captured 1000 1000. NJ9842 The 1972 Shimla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier. Cease fire occured in 2003.

Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) India Built helipad and telephone booth. 96. 99 (Lahore 1990. 95.Š 2000 personnels died Pakistan reclaimed positions in 1990. 96. Š Š Š Š . 1996. Summit). 95. Indian helicopter was shot down in 1996.


The conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector.Š It was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). Š .

This was only the second direct ground war between any two countries after they had developed nuclear weapons. which serves as the de facto border between the two states.Š The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC. weapons. Š .

Š Location War Truth regarding Kargil War Š Š .

Summers are cool with frigid nights. Š Š . Srinagar facing the Northern Areas across the LOC. while winters are long and chilly with temperatures often dropping to ï48 °C (ï54 °F). temperate climate.Š The town of Kargil is located 205 km (120 miles) from Srinagar. Like other areas in the Himalayas Kargil has a Himalayas. 48 (ï54 F).

000. They stopped the supply of fuel.Š Pak Forces and Mujahideen takes position on a ridge in a battle with the Indian Army during the Kargil conflict. conflict. Indian Navy blocked the port of Pakistan ( Karachi port). Š Š Š . Indian sent their army troops of 200.

Pakistan in filtered forces. India discovered in filtration and mobilized to respond. Š Š Š .Š There are three events in Kargil. Battle started between both forces.

Š Pakistan sought American help in de-escalating the conflict. 1999 where Sharif agreed to withdraw Pakistani troops. but some Pakistani forces remained in positions on the Indian side of the LOC. Control. LOC. On July 4. President Clinton refused to intervene until Pakistan had removed all forces from the Indian side of the Line of Control. most of the fighting came to a gradual halt. However. Š Š .

India had resumed control of all territory south and east of the Line of Control. as soon as the Drass subsector had been cleared of Pakistani forces.Š The Indian army launched its final attacks in the last week of July. The fighting ceased on July 26 26. The day has since been marked as Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India. By the end of the war. Š Š Š .

insisted on a pullout of forces to the pre-conflict positions along the LoC and settling border issues peacefully.Š Pakistan was criticized by other countries for instigating the war. Š Š Š . The European Union also opposed Pakistan's violation of the LOC. China. China a long-time ally of Pakistan. Other organizations like the ASEAN Regional Forum too supported India's stand on the inviolability of the LOC. as its paramilitary forces and insurgents crossed the Line of Control.

while India media claimed it was in the interest of national security security. The Indian Government banned the telecast of PTV and blocked access to online editions of the Dawn newspaper newspaper. The Pakistani media criticized this apparent curbing of freedom of the press in India. This helped India gain valuable diplomatic recognition for its position.Š The conflict soon turned into a news propaganda war in war. which press briefings given by government officials of each nation produced conflicting claims and counterclaims. Š Š Š .


Š The Agra summit was a two-day summit held on July 15th and 16th. Š Š . the summit collapsed after two days and no formal agreement could be attained. It was organized with the aim to resolve longstanding issues between India and Pakistan Pakistan. 2001 between Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee Vajpayee. However.

Despite the failure of the talks. Š Š . despite five long and arduous one-to-one rounds between the two leaders and hours of discussion between the two delegations. General Pervez Musharraf joined Vajpayee to call on the two countries to bury their past. The major concern of the international community related to both countries arriving at some "Nuclear risk reduction" initiatives to pre-empt South Asia featuring as a nuclear flash point.Š The two sides remained inflexible on the core issue of Kashmir.



Š Š Š Š . there was nothing that Pakistan could do to prevent India from any of the schemes to divert the flow of water in the rivers. 1948. Pakistan·s position was dismal and India could do whatever it wanted. The accord was meant to meet immediate requirements and was followed by negotiations for a more permanent solution. This accord required India to release sufficient waters to the Pakistani regions of the basin in return for annual payments from the government of Pakistan. From the Indian point of view.Š The partition of British India created a conflict over the plentiful waters of the Indus basin. During the first years of partition the waters of the Indus were apportioned by the Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4.

Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan Khan.Š The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing treaty brokered by the World Bank Bank. The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19. The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India. Š Š . 1960 by 19. it could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan.

Š The Indus System of Rivers comprises three Western Rivers the Indus. Š Š . Sutlej. the Jhelum and Chenab and three Eastern Rivers the Sutlej the Beas and the Ravi and with minor exceptions. with a commissioner appointed by each country. For this purpose. Pakistan has exclusive use of the Western Rivers. treaty creates the Permanent Indus Commission. Ravi. The treaty gives India exclusive use of all of the waters of the Eastern Rivers and their tributaries before the point where the rivers enter Pakistan Similarly.

If the "question" is not resolved there. or by a third party agreed upon by the two countries.Š One. One a role for the World Bank in the appointment of a Neutral Expert. it becomes a "difference" and is referred to a Neutral Expert. consultation with the two countries. The decision of the Neutral Expert on all matters within his competence shall be Š Š . the appointment of the Neutral Expert would be made by the World Bank in Bank. The first step under the Treaty is to resolve any "question" through the Permanent Indus Commission itself. to be appointed by the two countries. In the absence of such an agreement.

then a Court of Arbitration would be established. Š Š . Three a role for the World Bank in the establishment of a Court of Arbitration Arbitration. Expert Three. Two the management by the World Bank of a trust fund to meet the expenses of a Neutral Expert. or if the Neutral Expert rules that the ´differenceµ should be treated as a ´disputeµ.Š Two. If the ´differenceµ does not fall within the mandate of the Neutral Expert.

Š Š . Pakistani authorities allege the project is a violation of the Indus Waters Treaty and India holds that it is committed to the treaty.Š According to Kashmiri Separatists. India is currently building a dam and a hydroelectric water project at Nimzoo Bagin (Jammu and Kashmir). Indus water treaty has deprived J & K state to use its own water resources claiming losses in agriculture and energy.


Here India was involve with the support of Russia to support Communism and Pakistan was to support Capitalist with the backing of the US. both countries have fought proxy wars against each other. Š Š . US.Š Both Pakistan and India considered their relations with Afghanistan as most important relations with any other country. Since the renewal of the Afghanistan war. and both countries are reportedly making an extensive efforts to gain influence on Afghan Government for their own regional interests.

Š Taliban regime was strongly supported by Pakistan in Afghanistan. Afghanistan India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. with the United Nations. forces and taking a part in there business activities (helping in infrastructure) Š Š Š . India established its links with Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government. Nations India is training there Police.



Š Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf sent a plane load of relief supplies to India from Islamabad to Ahmedabad.000 Blankets include food and other related material. Š Š . Furthermore the President called Indian PM to express his 'sympathy' over the loss from the earthquake. That carried 200 tents and more than 2.


India sent 25 tons of relief material to Pakistan including food. blankets and medicine Large Indian companies such as medicine.000 On October 12. 226. blankets and 50 tents and returned to New Delhi. 15. Infosys have offered aid up to $226.000. Š Š . an Ilyushin-76 cargo plane ferried across seven truckloads (about 82 tons) of army medicines. Delhi.Š India offered generous aid to Pakistan in response to the 2005 Earthquake. 15.000 .

5 tons of plastic sheets and 12 tons of medicine. Such generous gestures signaled a new age in confidence. India dispatched the second consignment of relief material to Pakistan. Pakistan Š Š . India also pledged $25 million as aid to Pakistan. by train through the Wagah Border. A third consignment of medicine and relief material was also sent shortly afterwards by train. Border The consignment included 5.Š On October 14. friendliness and cooperation between both India and Pakistan. medicine. 370 tents. India opened the first of three points at Chakan Da Bagh. in Poonch. on the Line of Control Bagh (LoC) between India and Pakistan.000 blankets.

Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts. The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. restrictions and restarting of cricket matches between the two. easing visa restrictions.Š These include more high-level talks. Š Š .

Š Š .Š A "Friends Without Borders" scheme began with the help of two British tourists The idea was that tourists. The idea was so successful in both countries that the organization found it. The World's Largest Love Letter was recently sent from India to Pakistan. Indian and Pakistani children would make pen pals and write friendly letters to each other.

India had put on hold all the diplomatic relations saying it will only continue if Pakistan will act against the accused of Mumbai attacks attacks. 26/ Attacks. Š .Š India agreed to resume talks with Pakistan which were suspended after 26/11 Mumbai Attacks.


Railways. Š Š . Shimla Agreement and ran between Amritsar and Lahore. Express. 1976 following the 22. On April 14. The train was started on July 22. Lahore a distance of about 42 km km. 2000 in an agreement between Indian 14.Š The Samjhauta Express commonly called the Friendship Express. Railways and Pakistan Railways. 2000.


Š The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings were a terrorist attack that occurred around midnight on 18 February 2007 on the Samjhauta Express Express. included some Indian civilians and Indian military personnel guarding the train. SixtySixty-eight people were killed in the ensuing fire and dozens more were injured. Most were Pakistani civilians but the victims civilians. Š Š .


death. The sole surviving gun man Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. In May 2010.Š Ten terrorists killed over 173 people and wounded 308 people. and sentenced him to death. an Indian court convicted him on four counts of murder. people. waging war against India. Š Š . conspiracy and terrorism offences.

resisted the claims and demanded Š Š India provided evidence in the form of interrogations. and telephone sets. Pakistani Brand Milk Packets. candy wrappers.Š India blamed the Lashkar-e-Taiba (a Pakistan-based Lashkarmilitant group) for planning and executing the attacks. sets. Islamabad evidence. Indian officials demanded Pakistan extradite suspects . weapons.


and my thoughts and prayers are with the wounded and those who have lost loved ones. Š EU and NATO: Expressed deepest sympathies to the NATO: victims of the brutal terrorist attacks in heavily populated areas of Mumbai. . Š United Kingdom: Foreign Secretary William H said: "I Kingdom: send my deepest condolences to all those who have lost relatives or been injured in the bomb blasts in Mumbai. These were deplorable acts of terrorism.Š United States: President Barack Obama said: "I States: strongly condemn the outrageous attacks in Mumbai.



music. food. living patterns and languages which underpin the historical ties between the two.Š India and Pakistan have shared cultures. .

musicians. with many achieving overnight fame in the Indian film industry Bollywood.Š Pakistani singers. . comedians and entertainers have enjoyed widespread popularity in India.

Š Š . Fashion trends are somewhat similar. Our Wedding styles are also going similar to the Indian culture.Š Indian music and films are very popular in Pakistan.


The founder of the Sikhism religion was born in the Pakistani Punjab province, in the city of Nankana Sahib.


Each year, millions of Indian Sikh Yatris cross over to visit holy Sikh sites in Nankana Sahib.


Relations between Pakistan and India have also resumed through platforms such as media and communications. Aman ki Asha is a joint venture and campaign between The Times of India and the Jang Group calling for mutual peace and development of diplomatic and cultural relations.



India. Š . Rajasthan and Gujarat from the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh.Š The Indo-Pakistani border is the official international boundary that demarcates the Indian states of Punjab. The Wagah border is the only road crossing between India and Pakistan and lies on the famous Grand Trunk Road. connecting Lahore. Pakistan with Amritsar.

Š Cricket and hockey matches between the two (as well as other sports to a lesser degree such as those of the SAARC games) have often been political in nature. .

.The Indian and Pakistani cricket teams have been longtime known rivals and their rivalry is considered one of the most intense sports rivalries in the world.

Š An India-Pakistan cricket match has been estimated to attract up to 3 hundred million television viewers according to well respected TV ratings firm Initiative. and defeat is usually unacceptable to fans of both teams. .


In tennis, Rohan Bopanna of India and Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi of Pakistan have formed a successful duo and have been dubbed as the "Indo-Pak Expressµ


In 1977, both nations launched the Samjhauta Express connecting the Indian city of Attari with the Pakistani city of Lahore. On 18 February, 2006, Thar Express was revived after a period of 41 years to connect the Pakistani city of Karachi through the Munabao station and the Indian city of Jaipur through the Khokhrapar station.



Launch of Delhi-Lahore Bus in 1999, connected cities across the borders in the Punjab region and Sindh as well as between Indian-administered Kashmir and Pakistanadministered Kashmir across the Line of Control (LoC).

This move is a significant step towards boosting the peace process between the neighbors. Pakistan had previously linked trade liberalization with India to a resolution of the dispute over Kashmir. over which the nations have fought two wars. .Š Š Š Pakistan's cabinet has unanimously approved the award of "Most Favored Nation" trading status to India.

Š .Š The status typically reduces tariffs and increases import quotas. Pakistan says it has suffered from strict Indian customs rules and quality standards. Although India granted Pakistan most favored nation status in 1996.

Š Š .Š Pakistani decision has come at a time when the country desperately needs trade concessions from international markets to prevent its economy from sinking further. Indian Trade Minister Anand Sharma said that Delhi would also support a scheme proposed by the European Union to boost textile exports from areas of Pakistan affected by floods with duty waivers. India and Pakistan resumed formal peace talks this year after they were broken off in the wake of the militant attacks in Mumbai (Bombay) in 2008.


Pakistan and India financials institutions agree to bolster cooperation. Š Š Mutual funds and capitals markets of India and Pakistan have agreed to explore steps for each other investable class .

7bn (£1. a significant announcement was a pledge by India to drop its opposition to the European Union's plan to grant Pakistan tariff waiver on selected commodities to help it recover from the devastation of 2010 floods.Š After the talks in Delhi.7bn) to $6bn by 2015. Š Š . For Pakistan. ministers from the two sides announced their agreement to boost their annual bilateral trade from current $2. They also pledged to ease business travel and promote bilateral trade through the land route.



Political. The second is protectionism. domestic industry in Pakistan has feared it would be swamped by imports from India. the mood appears to have shifted. 1.Š There are a number of explanations why Pakistan has so far withheld the MFN status from India. . Political. Pakistani leaders have often linked it to the resolution of the core issue of Kashmir. 2. For years. But even there.

security clearances and movement restrictions .Š India has a variety of non-tariff barriers in place .which make it virtually impossible for Pakistani traders to do business in India. strict certification codes. . customs rules.such as.

Pakistan and India.Š The best way to end present violence in Kashmir is negotiations between various Kashmiri-separatists groups. .

divides the region in two. Kashmiri political parties too would oppose the plan as it violates the UN resolution for a referendum. Š Š . India would like to formalize this status quo and make it the accepted international boundary. with one part administered by India and one by Pakistan. Factors Opposing ² Pakistan rejects this plan partially as it will get lesser control over the region and wants greater.Š Currently a boundary ² the Line of Control (LOC).

Factors Opposing: The Muslim majority population of Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir. might object the outcome as would a majority of those in Kashmir valley in India.Š Though New Delhi and much of the Hindu population of Jammu and Buddhists in Ladakh would have no objections to such a plan. Š .

Š Pakistan accepts the status quo in return for India giving away disputed Sir Creek ( A 96 km strip of water disputed between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch marshlands) .

who were forced out of Kashmir by militants are also a major topic to consider. Factors Opposing² The communities of Hindus of Jammu and the Buddhists of Ladakh would object the outcome.Š Kashmir joining Pakistan. Hindu Kashmiri Pandits. Š Š .

Š As an independent state. However being a landlocked country. Š Š . Factors Opposing ² The outcome is unlikely because it requires both India and Pakistan (and potentially China) to give up territory. it would be heavily dependent on India and Pakistan. the region would somehow be economically feasible with tourism probably being the largest source of income.

However this region should maintain good relations with both India and Pakistan as it is landlocked and is covered with snow in winter. This would leave the Northern areas with Pakistan while India retains Jammu and Ladakh. Š Š Š .Š A smaller independent Kashmir formed out of the current strip of Kashmir (administered by Pakistan) and the Kashmir valley (controlled by India). This region can also have its defense and foreign relations jointly handled by India and Pakistan. Factors Opposing: The outcome is unlikely because it requires both India and Pakistan to give up territory.


they should not indulge in war. So. both of them are ´Nuclear Powersµ. ´War is not the solution to any Problemµ. Š Š Š Š . Up till now both countries have faced a tremendous financial and military loss Have wasted so many precious human lives in three wars. They have to lessen their Defense budget and have to focus on trade and development of their country and their people.Š Now.

Š Š . Pakistan and India should learn a lesson from the members of European Union and ASEAN etc«.Š Both of them should resolve their disputes especially ´Kashmirµ dispute by the ways and means of Bilateral and Peaceful talks and negotiations. how they have removed the trade barriers for the development of the whole region Pakistan and India must have to form a strong and friendly Trade Block in South Asia for the development of the whole region.

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