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t r e p o f r o P

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ia d e M

Figure 7.1

Transmission medium and physical layer

Transmission media-parameters

1. What kind of information it can carry ( Voice / Data/ Video )? 2. What is the range / distance supported without repeaters? 3. What topology it supports ? 1. Point-to-point ? 2. Point-to-multipoint ?

Transmission media-parameters

4. Direction of transmission 1. unidirectional ? 2. bidirectional ?

Transmission media-parameters

5. what is the bandwidth ( data rate ) supported ? 6. Delays 7. Ease of installation ? 8. Ease of maintenance /

Transmission media-parameters

8. up gradation capabilities? 9. Reliability Life? 10. Rights of way ? 11. Economics / cost benefit?

Fundamental Issues in Transmission Media

d meters Communication channel t=0 t = d/c

Information bearing capacity Amplitude response & bandwidth dependence on distance Susceptibility to noise & interference Error rates & SNRs

Fundamental Issues in Transmission Media

d meters Communication channel t=0 t = d/c

Propagation speed of signal c = 3 x 108 meters/second in vacuum = c/ speed of light in medium where >1 is the dielectric constant of the medium = 2.3 x 108 m/sec in copper wire; = 2.0 x 108 m/sec in optical fiber

Communications systems & Electromagnetic Spectrum

Frequency of communications signals
Analog telephone DSL Cell phone WiFi

Frequency (Hz) 1010 1012

Optical fiber

102 104



1014 1016 1018

1020 1022 1024

Ultraviolet light

Infrared light





10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 10-10 Wavelength (meters)

10-12 10-14

Gamma rays

Power and telephone

Broadcast radio

Microwave radio

Visible light


Figure 7.2

Classes of transmission media

Wireless & Wired Media

Wireless Media Signal energy propagates in space, limited directionality Interference possible, so spectrum regulated Limited bandwidth Simple infrastructure: antennas & transmitters No physical connection between network & user Users can move
Wired Media Signal energy contained & guided within medium Spectrum can be re-used in separate media (wires or cables), more scalable Extremely high bandwidth Complex infrastructure: ducts, conduits, poles, right-of-way

Attenuation varies with media Dependence on distance of central importance Wired media has exponential dependence Received power at d meters proportional to 10-kd Attenuation in dB = k d, where k is dB/meter Wireless media has logarithmic dependence Received power at d meters proportional to d-n Attenuation in dB = n log d, where n is path loss exponent; n=2 in free space Signal level maintained for much longer distances Space communications possible


Twisted-pair cable

Twisted-pair cable Physical description

Why it is twisted ?

Figure 7-6

Effect of Noise on Parallel Lines


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Figure 7-7

Noise on Twisted-Pair Lines


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Figure 7-8

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable


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Figure 7-9

UTP Connectors


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Figure 7-10

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable


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Figure 7.5

UTP connector

Figure 7.6

UTP performance

Twisted pair Two insulated copper wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern to minimize interference Various thicknesses, e.g. 0.016 inch (24 gauge) Low cost Telephone subscriber loop from customer to CO

Twisted Pair
30 26 gauge 24 gauge 22 gauge 19 gauge 12 6 f (kHz) 10 100 1000 Higher attenuation rate for DSL

Attenuation (dB/mi)

24 18

Lower attenuation rate analog telephone

Twisted pair Old trunk plant connecting telephone COs Intra-building telephone from wiring closet to desktop In old installations, loading coils added to improve quality in 3 kHz band, but more attenuation at higher frequencies

Twisted Pair
30 26 gauge 24 gauge 22 gauge 19 gauge 12 6 f (kHz) 10 100 1000 Higher attenuation rate for DSL

Attenuation (dB/mi)

24 18

Lower attenuation rate analog telephone

Twisted Pair Bit Rates

Table 3.5 Data rates of 24-gauge twisted pair

Twisted pairs can provide high bit rates at short distances Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL)
High-speed Internet Access Lower 3 kHz for voice Upper band for data 64 kbps inbound 640 kbps outbound

Standard T-1 DS2 1/4 STS-1

Data Rate


1.544 Mbps 6.312 Mbps

18,000 feet, 5.5 km 12,000 feet, 3.7 km

Much higher rates possible at shorter distances

Strategy for telephone companies is to bring fiber close to home & then twisted pair Higher-speed access + video

12.960 Mbps 4500 feet, 1.4 km

1/2 STS-1

25.920 Mbps 3000 feet, 0.9 km


51.840 Mbps 1000 feet, 300 m

Ethernet LANs twisted pair Category 3 unshielded

(UTP): ordinary telephone wires Category 5 UTP: tighter twisting to improve signal quality Shielded twisted pair (STP): to minimize interference; costly 10BASE-T Ethernet
10 Mbps, Baseband, Twisted pair Two Cat3 pairs Manchester coding, 100 meters

100BASE-T4 Fast Ethernet

100 Mbps, Baseband, Twisted pair Four Cat3 pairs Three pairs for one direction at-a-time 100/3 Mbps per pair; 3B6T line code, 100 meters

Cat5 & STP provide other options

Transmission media-application summary

LAN Telephone-Local loop Internet access network- DSL

Coaxial cable

Cylindrical braided outer conductor surrounds insulated inner wire conductor High interference immunity Higher bandwidth than twisted pair Hundreds of MHz Cable TV distribution Long distance telephone transmission Original Ethernet LAN medium

Coaxial Cable
35 30 0.7/2.9 mm 1.2/4.4 mm

Attenuation (dB/km)

25 20 15 10 5 0.1 1.0

2.6/9.5 mm


100 f (MHz)

Coaxial cable-Physical description

Figure 7.8

BNC connectors

Figure 7.9

Coaxial cable performance

Categories of coaxial cables-applications Category RG-59 RG-58 RG-11 Impedance 75 50 50 Use Cable TV Thin Ethernet Thick Ethernet

also used in long distance telephone transmission

Transmission media-application summary

LAN Thin Ethernet-Thick Ethernet Telecom carrier-back haul links Cable TV

Optical fiber

Electrical signal

Optical Fiber
Modulator Optical fiber Receiver Optical source

Electrical signal

Light sources (lasers, LEDs) generate pulses of light that are transmitted on optical fiber
Very long distances (>1000 km) Very high speeds (>40 Gbps/wavelength) Nearly error-free (BER of 10-15)

Profound influence on network architecture

Dominates long distance transmission Distance less of a cost factor in communications Plentiful bandwidth for new services

Geometry of optical fiber Light

Transmission in Optical Fiber

Cladding Core Jacket

Total Internal Reflection in optical fiber

Very fine glass cylindrical core surrounded by concentric layer of glass (cladding) Core has higher index of refraction than cladding Light rays incident at less than critical angle c is completely reflected back into the core

Propagation modes

Basic principle- Light wave communication

Figure 7-19

Single Mode


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Figure 7-17

Multimode Step-Index


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Figure 7-18

Multimode Graded-Index


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Figure 7.13


Figure 7-20

Fiber Construction


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Multimode & Single-mode Fiber

Multimode fiber: multiple rays follow different paths Reflected path Direct path Single-mode fiber: only direct path propagates in fiber

Multimode: Thicker core, shorter reach

Rays on different paths interfere causing dispersion & limiting bit rate

Single mode: Very thin core supports only one mode (path)
More expensive lasers, but achieves very high speeds

Optical Fiber Properties

Advantages Very low attenuation Noise immunity Extremely high bandwidth Security: Very difficult to tap without breaking No corrosion More compact & lighter than copper wire
Disadvantages New types of optical signal impairments & dispersion
Polarization dependence Wavelength dependence

Limited bend radius

If physical arc of cable too high, light lost or wont reflect Will break

Difficult to splice Mechanical vibration becomes signal noise

100 50 10

Very Low Attenuation

Water Vapor Absorption (removed in new fiber designs)

Loss (dB/km)

5 1 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01

Infrared absorption Rayleigh scattering







Wavelength ( m)

850 nm Low-cost LEDs LANs

1300 nm Metropolitan Area Networks Short Haul

1550 nm Long Distance Networks Long Haul

Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
Different wavelengths carry separate signals Multiplex into shared optical fiber Each wavelength like a separate circuit A single fiber can carry 160 wavelengths, 10 Gbps per wavelength: 1.6 Tbps!
1 2. optical mux optical fiber

optical demux

Optical fiber-Physical description

LED / Laser

Photo detector

Table 7.3 Fiber types

Type 50/125 62.5/125 100/125 7/125 Core 50 62.5 100 7 Cladding 125 125 125 125 Mode Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Single-mode

Fiber Optics-advantages
1. Greater Capacity 1. up to 3.5 Gbps 2. less signal attenuation 3. Longer range 1. 10s of KMs 2. AT&T has developed transmission system over a distance of 318 KMs without any repeaters 4. Immunity to electromagnetic interference 5. Resistive to corrosive materials 6. Light weight 7. More immune to tapping

Fiber Optics-Disadvantages
1. Installation / maintenance complexity 2. Unidirectional 3. Cost not justifiable , if the bandwidth is low

Fiber Optics-Applications
1. Long-haul trunks
Average about 900 miles 20,000 to 60,000 voice channels

1. Metropolitan trunks 2. Rural-exchange trunks 3. Subscriber loops 4. Local Area Networks

Suitable for all types of information-Voice, Data, Image & Video

Transmission media-application summary

High Speed LAN Backbone in Campus Network Metropolitan Area Networks Cable TV Telecom carrier-back haul links Inter-continental links


Wireless Media

Terrestrial Satellite

Example-Fixed Wireless Products from Motorola

Free Space Optical Communication Equipment

Table 7.4 Bands

Band VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Range 330 KHz 30300 KHz 300 KHz3 MHz 330 MHz 30300 MHz 300 MHz3 GHz 330 GHz 30300 GHz Propagation Ground Ground Sky Sky Sky and line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight Application Long-range radio navigation Radio beacons and navigational locators AM radio Citizens band (CB), ship/aircraft communication VHF TV, FM radio UHF TV, cellular phones, paging, satellite Satellite communication Long-range radio navigation

Note on wireless medium.. As the frequency increases, need of line-of-sight increases Higher frequency links facilitate more bandwidth which means higher data rate provision for multiple types of info ( Voice, data, video ) ISM ( Industrial Scientific & Medical band ) is made license free, in most of countries in India 2.4 GHz 5.7 GHz

Note on wireless medium.. Range supported by a wireless link / network is decided by key factors like : Transmitted power Receiver sensitivity modulation technology transmission technology terrain conditions obstruction factors attenuation weather conditions Range supported is inversely proportional to the frequency of operation

Radio Transmission
Radio signals: antenna transmits sinusoidal signal (carrier) that radiates in air/space Information embedded in carrier signal using modulation, e.g. QAM Multipath propagation causes fading Interference from other users Spectrum regulated by national & international regulatory organizations

Radio Spectrum
Frequency (Hz) 108 104 105 106 107 109 1010 1011 1012 FM radio and TV AM radio Cellular and PCS Wireless cable

Satellite and terrestrial microwave LF 10


MF 103

HF 102

VHF 101 1

UHF 10-1


EHF 10-2 10-3

Wavelength (meters) Omni-directional applications Point-to-Point applications

Examples Point-to-Multipoint Systems

Cellular Phone Allocated spectrum First generation: 800, 900 MHz Initially analog voice Second generation: 1800-1900 MHz Digital voice, messaging Wireless LAN Unlicenced ISM spectrum Industrial, Scientific, Medical 902-928 MHz, 2.400-2.4835 GHz, 5.725-5.850 GHz IEEE 802.11 LAN standard 11-54 Mbps

Directional antennas at microwave frequencies High-speed digital communications between sites High-speed Internet Access Radio backbone links for rural areas Satellite Communications Geostationary satellite @ 36000 km above equator Relays microwave signals from uplink frequency to downlink frequency Long distance telephone Satellite TV broadcast

Wireless Media

Case Studies

Last mile Wireless Links facilitating the ERP Implementation for an automobile giant
Wireless Link being built by CCIPL Bandwidth providers POP in District #1 7 KMs approx

Ethernet Port

Main Manufacturing Unit Sate #1

Bandwidth Provider


6 KMs approx

POP of the Bandwidth provider in District #2 Karnataka

Ethernet Port

Wireless Link being built by CCIPL Remote Manufacturing unit State #2

Ethernet Port G.703 [ISP ] - POP Bangalore

Ethernet Port

Wireless WAN in Hydarabad Hyderabad

2.69 KMs

Repeater (

Chief Ministers
Residence Institute 8.2KMs Of Administration

Main HUB
5 KMs

1.8 KMs Repeater CCMB

1.19 KMs

NIC-State Office

Secretariate- C- Block

Repeater OU CIPR
Secretariate- K- Block

Secretariate- L- Block

Raj Bhawan 8.2 Kms


Wireless Metropolitan Area Network for National Informatics Centre BANGALORE



Agriculture NIMHANS National Public Education 11.2 Kms Coffee Board


NIC-Visvesvaraya tower


Election Commission UAS, Hebbal GKVK High Court HMT CTO

M S Building Repeater Site


Vidhana Soudha

) ) ) )( )) (

0.53 KMs

6.76 KMs

Main HUB

NIC-Kendriya Sadan Koramangala

Wireless Metropolitan Area Network in Delhi Wireless Radio MAN



Cell #3

R34 R35 LNB 40 n the GO MNER a th to at C and R18 e s e WHO R33 il s or n m atio Sit -Ma ion K A B R36 s s t Shared 2 MBPS Radio Network C E R20 R21 nk ani l NI or lica MFP UDYOG BHAVAN D P &T Li g f p a R32 or ntr lex t ap R22 ce mp n e R37 SOUTH BLOCK Co ter R31 n LNB i R23


Shared 2 MBPS Radio Network R27 Wireless Radio MAN Cell #4





R16 R15

1.56 KMs


Shared 2 MBPS Radio Network




R24 R25 RPTR #2 (8)





RPTR #1 (2)


RPTR #3 (11)


R26 SEVA DOD BHAVAN Wireless Radio MAN SASTRY Cell #2 2 MBPS RadioLink BHAVAN 2 MBPS RadioLink Wireless Optical [ Infrared ] Link Wireless Radio MAN 5.95 KMs [ 10 MBPS ] Cell #1 3.43 KMs R3 IDRC R4 HUB NIC Head Office CGO-Complex and Internet Point-Of-Presence Shared 2 MBPS Radio Network R5 R6 R7 R9






Example-Fixed Wireless Products from Motorola

Figure 7.17

Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

Figure 7-21

Radio Communication Band


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Figure 7.18

Propagation methods

Figure 7-23, 24




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Figure 7-25, 26




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Figure 7-27, 28




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Figure 7-29, 30




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Figure 7-31

Terrestrial Microwave


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Antennae -at a glimpse

Antenna types

1.Omni Directional Antenna 2. Directional Antenna 3. Sector Antenna

Figure 7.20

Omnidirectional antennas

Figure 7.21

Unidirectional antennas

Figure 7-32

Parabolic Dish Antenna


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Figure 7-33

Horn Antenna


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Application of sectoral antenna based wireless system

Example- Motorola Canopy Wireless products


Coverage upto 24 Kms


AP 1 AP 6 AP 2

Base station AP 5 System AP 3

AP 4

600 600


Figure 7-36

Cellular System


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Figure 7-37

Cellular Bands


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Transmission media-application summary

Broadcast Radio TV Citizen Band Radio Mobile phones Pager Radio trunking

Transmission media-application summary

Outdoor applications Telecom carrier-Back haul links Wireless Metropolitan Area Data Networks Next generation Wi-MAX networks Last Mile Access links / networks Indoor applications Wireless [ Wi-Fi ] LANs Bluetooth

Transmission media-application summary

Short Range Communication [ TV Remote control ] Bluetooth devices Input / Output device connectivity Computer High speed short range links [ up to 4 KMs ] as alternative to Fiber optic cables

Transmission media-application summary

Infrared Communication for Campus Area Network -Case study

High Speed Wireless Optical Communication Links End user : M/s Aditi Technologies
MultiLink LightStation 155/800 MultiLink LightStation 155/800 500 Mtrs

Wireless Optical Links

MultiLink LightStation 155/800
CISCO Catalyst 2900

MultiLink LightStation 155/800

<1000 Mtrs

CISCO Catalyst 2900

M2 Park View

CISCO Catalyst 2900

6 Mtrs

Palace View

Manor House

Free Space Optical Communication Equipment