# QUANTUM MECHANICS AND QUANTUM MECHANICS AND

RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS
We want to prove that the Energies of the Hamiltonian
2
2
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) y(0)=0=y( )
n
d y x
V x y x E y x
dx
+ = ·
Are the square of the imaginary part of the Riemann Zeros
2
n n
E K =
So the Energies of the Hamiltonian are the roots of the Riemann Xi-function\
Riemann zeta function

/ 2
( 1)
( )
2 2
s
s s s
s s \ ^ T

+
= I
¦
' '
So, we have managed to prove that

2
0
1 1
logdet
2 2
n
n
d d
m E i H E Arg ik
dE k dk
I TH K \
·
=
+
¨ + = = +
¦
' '
¿

det 1/ 4 (1 )
( )
(0) det 1/ 4
H s s
s
H
\
\
+
=
+
The Riemann Xi-function can be expressed as a functional determinant on the vari
Able Ɲsƞ
The Riemann-Weil trace formula can be obtained from the derivative of the follo
Wing functional determinant
The potential inside the Quantum Hamiltonian is igven implicitly by

1/ 2
1
1/ 2
0
( ) 2 ( )
( ) 2
1/ 2
x
d N x d dtN t
V x
dx dx
x t
T
T

= =
I

¦
Here , N(E) is the Eigenvalue staircase , that counts the number of Eigenvalues/
Energies on the interval (0,E)
0
( ) ( )
n
n
N E H E E
·
=
=
¿
0 0
( )
1 x>0
x
H x

®
¯
°
0
( ) ( )
n
n
dN
d E E E
dE
H
·
=
= =
¿
In case of the Riemann Hypothesis, the Eigenvalue staircase is given by the
Argument of the Riemann Xi function defined on the first page
1 1
( )
2
N E Arg i E \
T
+
= +
¦
' '
In order to get the proof that our quantum system defined on page first , gives the
Square of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function as Eigenvalues, we need to intro-
Duce 2 important formulae , the Riemann-Weil explicit formula and the quantization
Rules by Bohr and Sommerfeld
0
( ) 2 ( )
a
C
pdq E V x dx n E T = <
¦ ¦
!
BOHR-SOMMERFELD QUANTIZATION RULE
Here, n=n(E) is an integer this formula is an approximation but works pretty well
For big values of the Quantum Energies Ɲnƞ , the pont Ɲaƞ is a turning point so the
Momentum of the particle is p=0 and E=V(a) , in one dimension we can obtain
The potential (its inverse) from the eigenvalue staircase as follows
n
E E =
( )
1
3/ 2
0 0
1/ 2 1 1/ 2
1
1/ 2 1/ 2
( )
2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2
( ) ( )
2 ( ) 2 ( )
a a E E
n n x
dx dV x
n E E V x dx E V D
dV dx
d d dV x d n x
n x V x
dx dx dx dx
T T
T T
=

+
= ÷ =
¦
' '
+
= ÷ =
¦
' '
¦ ¦
The constant integration is set to 0 so at x=0 the potential and the n(E) take the
Value 0 , from this equation above we have proved that we can recover the inverse
Of the potential (and hence the potential) from the half derivative of the Eigenvalue
Staircase
If we introduce the momentum and wave number in terms of the Energy
E p k = =
in units with
2 1 m = = !
This is made in order to simplify the calculations and avoid constants
RIEMANN-WEIL EXPLICIT FORMULA FOR ZEROS AND PRIMES
1
( ) 1 ' 1
( ) 2 2 (log ) ( ) (0) log
2 2 4 2
n
i n ir
h h g n drh r g
n
K
K T
T
·
·
=
·
A I
+ +
= + +
¦ ¦
I
' ' ' '
¿ ¿
¦
( ) ( ) ( )
iux
h u g x e h u
·

·
= =
¦
( ) ( ) g x g x =
There is a duality between the imaginary part of the Riemann Zeros and the prime
Numbers
log
( )
0 otherwise
k
p n p
n
® =
A =
¯
°
Von Mangoldt function
If we plug the function
Inside the Riemann-Weil explicit formula we obtain
2
( , ) ( ) h r E E r H =

2
1 1 ' 1 1 log
2 2 2 2 2
' 1 1 ' 1 1
2 2
4 2 4 4 2 4 2
reg
E ip ip
p p p
i i
p p
ip ip
p p p
K
^ ^ T
TH K
^ ^
H H
+ +
= + +
¦ ¦
' ' ' '
+ +
+ +
¦ ¦
I I
+ +
' ' ' '
+ + + +
¦ ¦
I I
' ' ' '
¿
To get this formula we have used the following expressions

log
1
( ) ' 1
( )
'( ) 2
n
n i E n
reg
x n
n
x x
n
f x e i E
f x
n
H
^
H
^
·
=

A
+
= = +
¦
' '
¿ ¿
2
( )
imk
m m
k n e
T
H
· ·
=· =·
=
¿ ¿
2
2 2
2
( )
( ) 0 (0) 0 (1)
d y x
n y x y y
dx
T + = = =
In OUR case we will choose the branch of the logarithm for the Riemann
Xi function so
1
0
2
Arg\
+
=
¦
' '
In this case the density of states is related to a sum over primes, this is not new
For example for the infinite potential well the density of Energies can be evaluated
By an exponential sum over ALL the integers.
The sum involving the Dirac delta is over the zeros of f(x)
E p k = =
The sum involving the Mangoldt function has been zeta-regularized
The sum over the imaginary part of the zeros inside the Riemann-Weil formula is
Over ALL the zeros, not just the zeros lying on the critical line Re(s)=1/2
If we integrate over ƝEƞ and use
( ) log( ) Arg z m z = ¨
2
0 0
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
n n
n n
H E H E E Arg i E n E K \
T
· ·
= =
+
= = + =
¦
' '
¿ ¿
RIEMANN-VON MANGOLDT FORMULA FOR THE NUMBER OF ZEROS
ON THE INTERVAL (0,T)
1 1 1
( ) log
2 2 2 2
T T T
N T O Arg iT T
T
^
T T T T
+ + +
< + + + ÷·
¦ ¦ ¦
' ' ' ' ' '
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
( )
( ) 2
d N x
V x
dx
T

=
We MUST include ALL the corrections the SMOOTH part and the OSCILLATING part ,
the SMOOTH Part is given by the first 2 terms inside the Riemann-Mangoldt formula,
the OSCILLATING part is
Given by the argument of the Riemann Zeta function on the critical line

/ 2
2 2 / 2
1
4 ( )
( )
smooth
e A x B
V x
I
I
T I
TI

<
2
2 2
( ) 4
( )
smooth
x B
V x e
A
I
I T
T
I
+
+
<
¦
¦
' '
1
1
2
2 0
1
2 ( ) ( )
2
( ) log ( )
1
!
log
1
2
k k
k
osc
n k
k
n i
V x n s
k
k
n n T T

· ·

= =
+
I +
¦
A
' '
<

+
I +
¦
' '
¿ ¿
0
3
3 1
2

2 2 !
1
2
n
A B e
n
I
T
I
·
=
+
+
I
¦
+
' '
= = I = =
¦
+
' '
I +
¦
' '
¿

1 1
1
2
( ) log ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
n n
E E n
N E E N E E f n N E
e W ne
T
T T

+
< = < = = <
¦
' '
1
1
( )
( )
!
n
n
n
n
W x x
n

·
=

=
¿
If we invert the Riemann-Von Mangoldt function, we can get a first asymptotic to
The imaginary part of the Riemann Zeros , given bye the Lambert W-function
ZETA REGULARIZED DETERMINANT AND RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS
Given an operator with a Hadamard product expansion
2
0
1
n
n
E
E
·
=
+
+
¦
' '
|
We can define its ƝZeta regularized determinantƞ in the form

2 2
0 0
Ö
(0, ) (0, 0) logdet log log
s s n n
n n
Z E Z H E E E
· ·
= =
¯ + ¯ = = +
¿ ¿

1 2
0
( ) ( , ) ( ) exp
s
s s E dt t t tE ^
·

I = O
¦
1
0
( )
s t
s dtt e
·

I =
¦

2 2
0
1
,
s
n
n
s E
E E
^
·
=
=
+
¿
For a Hamiltonian 2 
( ) H p V x H H = + =
We can define an EXACT and an WKB Theta function

2
0
0 0
1
( ) exp ( ) exp( ( ))
2
exact WKB definition
st
n
n
t tE s dtN t e dq dp tp tV q
T
· · ·
·

=
·
O = =
¿
¦ ¦ ¦
How should the potential V(x) be so ( ) ( )
WKB
t t O = O
Before doing any calculation , we will introduce some properties of the
Laplace inverse and direct transform
1
( ) ( )
2
c i
st kt kt
c i
D f t dsF s e s D e k e
i
E E E E
T
+ ·
·
= =
¦
If two functions are EQUAL so are their Laplace transforms
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
st st
dt f t e dtg t e f t g t
· ·

= ÷ =
¦ ¦

2
0
0 0
1
2 ( )
0 0
1
exp ( ) exp( ( ))
2
1 1 1 ( )
exp( ( ))
2
2 2
st
n
n
tV q tr
tE s dtN t e dq dp tp tV q
dV r
dq dp tp tV q dqe dre
dr
t t
T
T
T T
· · ·
·

=
·
· · · ·

· ·
= = =
= = =
¿
¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
1 1
0 0 0 0
( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( )
2
st st st st
s
s dtN t e dtV t e s dtN t e dte V t T
T
· · · ·

= =
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
We can also use the integration by parts for the fractional operator, in the same
Way we introduced the fractional differential operator for the Laplace inverse
1/ 2 1/ 2
1/ 2 1/ 2
0 0
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
d d f x d d g x
dx g x dx f x
dx dx dx dx
· ·
+ +
=
¦ ¦
' ' ' '
¦ ¦
From the equation
1
0 0
2 ( ) ( )
st st
s dtN t e dte V t T
· ·

=
¦ ¦
We get, that the inverse of the potential (by Laplace transform theory) is
Equal to the following
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
2 ( ) ( )
d
N x V x
dx
T

=
¡¡ But this is precisely the same functional equation we obtained with the Bohr
Sommerfeld quantization rules ¡¡
For the case of the RH and the Riemann Zeros

2
0
0
1 1
( ) exp ( ) ( )
2
st
n
n
t t s dtN t e N x Arg i x K \
T
·
·

=
+
O = = = +
¦
' '
¿
¦
In this case we can define the zeta regularized Hadamard product
2
2
0
1 1
1
2 2
n
n
z
z \ \
K
·
=
+
+ +
+ = +
¦
¦ ¦
' ' ' '
' '
| For the EXACT Theta function
For the WKB Theta function we have the Zeta function

3/ 2
0 0
2 ( ) ( , ) exp ( )
s
WKB
s s E t dt dq tV q T ^
· ·

I =
¦ ¦
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
exact WKB
d n x
t t iff V x
dx
T

O = O =
For the WKB formulation Zeta regularization gives

2
( , ) ( , 0) logdet logdet
s WKB s WKB
s E s H E H ^ ^ ¯ + ¯ = +
So if we put the 2 equations together
( ) ( )
WKB
t t O = O

2 2
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
2
1
det ( )
( )
2
( ) 2
1
det ( )
2
x
x
z
V x z
d n x
V x
dx
V x
\
T
\

+
+
¦
¯ + +
' '
= =
+ ¯ +
¦
' '
SInce the Hamiltonian is Hermitian the factor
2
z H +
Will only vanish for
n n
z i E iK = ± = ±
So, ALL the Zeros of the Riemann Xi function
1
2
s \
+
+
¦
' '
Will be PURELY IMAGINARY , and bye a change of variable
s iz ÷
Then, ALL the Zeros of the Riemann Xi
function , will be REAL
1
2
iz \
+
+
¦
' '
The Riemann Xi function (above) is proportional to the Functional determinant

2 2
det ( )
x
V x s ¯ +
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
1
( ) 2
2
d Arg
V x i x
dx
\
T

+
= +
¦
' '
2 2
2
2 2
( , ) ( , ) 0 +boundary condition
n
y f x y E f x y
x y
+ ¯ ¯
+ + =
¦
¯ ¯
' '
2
1 1
0
4 2
n n n
E s Z is
+
= + + =
¦
' '

( )
0 .
( ) 1 det (1 )
p
l s n
n p o
Z s e s s
·
+
=
= = A+
||
2 2
2
2 2
y
x y
+ ¯ ¯
A = +
¦
¯ ¯
' '

1
1
s
p
s p ^

=
|
THE SELBERG ZETA FUNCTION SATISFY RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS, AND IS ALSO
PROPORTIONAL TO A FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANT
The Selberg zeta function can be
Defined as
The analogy between the Selberg and the Riemann
Zeta function is clear
log
p
l p =
In both cases the infinite product for The Riemann Zeta over the primes, and for the
Selberg Zeta is only convergent for
Re( ) 1 s "
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
1
sinh( )
0 (0) 0 (1) 1
n
x x
n
x x n
T
T
·
=
+ ¯ +
+ + = + = = + = +
¦
¯
' '
|
A simpler analogy is given by the hyperbolic sine function and the infinite poten
Tial well in QM in this case the problem is exactly solvable and gives.
So , we can expect that our method will work, HOWEVER in order to work we
NEED to include both, the SMOOTH and oscillating part of the Eigenvalue Stair
Case N(E) , otherwise the results may be poor
1 1
( ) log ( )
2 2 2
smooth oscillating
E E
N E N E Arg i E
e
^
T T T
+
+
< = +
¦
¦
¦
' '
' '
Weylƞs law
1/ 2
1
( ) ( )
2
smooth
N E O E d
I
I
+
< = +
For x >0 the potential is given by the implicit equation
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
1
( ) 2
2
d Arg
V x i x
dx
\
T

+
= +
¦
' '
For x <0 the potential is equal to ( ) 0 V x x = ·
At the point x=0 there is an infinite wall (similar to the infinite potential well
Problem , this is the reason we have introduced the boundary conditions
(0) 0 ( ) y y = = · Since the potential V(x) is positive on the Real line then
2 2
0
n n n n
H p V E E E R K = + = ÷ = " 
If the square of the Riemann zeros are ENERGIES , the imaginary part of the
Riemann Zeros play the role of momenta
n n n
k p K = =
So, the Riemann Xi-function can be expressed as the quotient of 2 functional
Determinants involving a Hamiltonian (Hermitian) Operator
1
det (1 )
( ) 4
1 (0)
det
4
H s s
s
H
\
\
+
+
¦
' '
=
+
+
¦
' '
 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y(0)=0=y( )
x
Hy x H y x y x V x y x = = ¯ + ·
The potential is defined implicitly by
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
1
( ) 2
2
d
V x Arg i x
dx
T \

+
= +
¦
' '

2
0
1 1
logdet
2 2
n
n
d d
m E i H E Arg ik
dE k dk
I TH K \
·
=
+
¨ + = = +
¦
' '
¿
The Riemann-Weil formula can be derived by taking the logarithmic derivative
Of the Funcitonal determinant
E k =
0 I ÷
The evaluation of the right part yields to
1 1 log 1 ' 1
2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2
ik i i
e ik e k k
k k k k k
^ T T T
H H
^
I
+ + + +
T + + T + + + +
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
I
' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
Using the Riemann-Weil formula we can also evaluate
2 2
0
1 2 1 1 ' 1 '
( ) (1 )
1 1
( 1) 2 ( 1) ( 1)
( 1) ( 1)
4 4
n
n
dr
s s
s s s s s s
s s r s s
^ ^
T ^ ^
K
·
·
=
·
= + + +

+ + + +
¿
¦
In this case we have used the test function
2 2
1 1 1
( , ) and
2 2
h r a a s a s
r a
= = =
+
This invariance still holds
1 s s ÷
REFERENCES AND FURTHER LECTURES
http://www.claymath.org/millennium/Riemann_Hypothesis/riemann.pdf E. Bombieri
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_determinant How to evaluate Zeta regulari
Zed Functional determinants, other methods are explained there too.
Tional determinant and Zeta regularization algorithm applied to physics
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/quant-ph/pdf/0206/0206179v1.pdf WKB introduction
In physics and mathematics
http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0105 My original paper on the subject
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1104/1104.1850v3.pdf Berry and Keating
Hamiltonian model
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1101/1101.3116v1.pdf Physics and Riemann
Hypothesis: an introduction for pedestrians
http://www.phy.bris.ac.uk/people/berry_mv/the_papers/Berry154.pdf Quantization,
Functional determinants, Riemann Hypothesis, Selberg trace and More :D
¡¡¡ THANK YOU FOR
WATCHING
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1012/1012.4264v1.pdf More physics and
Riemann Hypothesis , Berry Hamiltonian and more stuff.