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Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1

Objectives
Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are used Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage List some common input, output, and storage media Distinguish data from information Describe the significance of networking Explain the significance of the Internet Explain the various classifications of computers

Contents
Information Age Computer Literacy Where Computers Are Used Computer System Network Classifications of Computers

Information Age
Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age Will continue into the current century

Cornerstones of our Economy


Forging a Computer-Based Society:
Land Labor Capital Information

Jobs
Forging a Computer-Based Society:
From physical to mental From muscle-power to brain-power

A Computer in Your Future


Where used?
Bank withdrawal Supermarket Drive the car

Do I need a Personal Computer?


Half of Americans have one at home Many more use at work

Will I use a computer in my future career?


Almost every job will involve use of a computer

Computer Literacy
Awareness
Importance Versatility Pervasiveness in our society

Knowledge
What are computers How do computers work Terminology

Interaction
Use some simple computer applications

The Nature of Computers


Characteristics
Speed Reliability Storage capability

Results
Productivity Decision making Cost reduction

Where Computers Are Used Graphics


Graphs and charts

Animated graphics
Visual walk-through

Where Computers Are Used Education


Teaching and testing aid Learning by doing Computer-based instruction

Where Computers Are Used Retailing


Bar codes for pricing and inventory Shipping

Where Computers Are Used Energy


Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium Monitor the power network Meter reading

Where Computers Are Used Law Enforcement


National fingerprint files

National files on criminal Computer modeling of DNA

Where Computers Are Used Transportation


Cars Run rapid transit systems Load containerships Track railroad cars Monitor air traffic

Where Computers Are Used Money


Record keeping

Banking by phone
Credit cards

Where Computers Are Used Agriculture


Billing Crop information Feed combinations Livestock breeding and performance

Where Computers Are Used Government


Forecast weather Manage parks Process immigrants Social Security benefits Taxes

Where Computers Are Used The Home


Educational tool Record keeping Letter writing Budgeting Drawing and editing pictures Newsletters Connecting with others

Where Computers Are Used Health and Medicine


Monitor patients

Electronic imaging
Diagnose illnesses

Where Computers Are Used Robotics


Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans Factory work

Where Computers Are Used The Human Connection


Assist the disabled

Assist athletes by monitoring their movements

Where Computers Are Used

The Sciences
Research Simulation

Connectivity
Communication Telecommuting

Where Computers Are Used

Training
Airline pilots Railroad engineers

Paperwork
Junk mail Term paper Record keeping

Computers are all around!


Grocery store School Library Bank Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Computer System
People
Software Hardware

People
Computer programmer person who writes programs
Users or End-users make use of the computers capabilities

Software
Programs

Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results

Hardware Basic Components of a Computer

Computer
A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware

Function of Computer System


Data handling
I P O S Input Process Output Storage

Input devices
Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form
Getting data into the computer
Typing on a keyboard Pointing with a mouse Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader Terminal

Output devices
Convert from electronic form to some other form May display the processed results Usable information Monitor or screen
Text Numbers Symbols Art Photographs Video

Printer
Black and white Color

The Processor
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Converts data to useful information

Interpret and execute instructions


Communicate with input, output and storage

Two Types of Storage


Secondary storage long-term storage Primary storage or memory temporary storage

Memory / Primary Storage


Temporary storage
Holds input to be processed Holds results of processing Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output Volatile

Secondary Storage
Long-term storage Non-volatile

Secondary Storage Examples


Magnetic disks read and written by magnetic disk drive
Hard disk Diskette

Optical disks read and written by optical disk drives


CD-ROM DVD-ROM

Magnetic tape read and written by magnetic tape drives


Primarily used for back-up

Computer System
Computer
CPU Memory

Peripheral equipment
Connected to the computer by a cable Input, output, storage

Network
Definition
A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources.

Types
Local area network (LAN) connects computers in close proximity
Metropolitan are network (MAN) connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area Wide are network (WAN) connects computers over great distances

Home Connectivity
Connect home PC to other computers

Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats

Internet
Collection of networks No ownership No central source for services available No comprehensive index of what information is available Connects Everyone!
Individuals Businesses Organizations Libraries Research labs Government

Getting Connected
Users computer must connect to a server
Server must communicate using TCP/IP

The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Internet What Can You Do?


WWW World Wide Web
FTP File Transfer Protocol E-mail UseNet IRC Internet Relay Chat Bulletin Boards

World Wide Web


Browser program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics Web page

Web site
Home page

Classifications of Computers
Use the computer that fits your needs Based upon
Size Speed Cost Portability Number of simultaneous users supported Available software Typical use

Personal Computers
Other names
PC Microcomputer Home computer Low-end functional Fully powered Workstations Net computer or net box (Web TV)

Categories

Desktop Models

Notebook Computers
Portable
Lightweight Fits in a briefcase Battery operated

Laptop
Larger Heavier

More expensive that desktop models

Handheld Computers
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Scheduling Addresses Handwritten input May offer wireless e-mail and fax

Pocket
More power than PDA Runs basic productivity software

Other Types of Computers


Mainframes
High speed More expensive Used to process large amounts of data quickly Support multiple users Does server tasks

Supercomputers
Fastest speed Most expensive