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GAME PLAYING COMPUTERS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Go Bang ± The Game Presented to: Pascal Hitzler & Sebastian Bader Presented by: Zulqernain Akhter
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GOBANG(Go-moku) Introduction ( History ) o Go Bang(Go-moku) o Renju Description of the Games o Classification of Game Type o Rules of Game o How to Play o Variant (Other Row-Games) o Computer as an opponent 2 .

Amazons) 3 .GOBANG(Go-moku) Background Requirements o Searching Strategies  Alpha-Beta Search  Proof Number Search  Solving the Games o AI Games Solved Now and in Future  Conclusion o Summary of Results o Future Research o New Predictions o Two New Games (LOA.

INTRODUCTION History: o It is very old five-in-a-row game kakugo ( year 100 A. ) o In Japan they played on a 19x19 Go-board since about 700 A. o In 1931 Nobel prize winner Yasunari Kawabata "The Master of Go³. o COMPUTER OLYMPAID GAMES in the year 2000 predicted GoMoku as a Solved Game. when Go was introduced in Japan from China.D. o The ancient Chinese game of wutzu as prototype of the Five-In-ARow games. 4 . proposed the change from Go-board from 19x19 to 15x15 intersections.D. o Winner is known as Japanese ³Meijin´ named in game ³Renju´. means ³five pearls in a row³.

RULES OF GAME Rule 1. the game is said to be divergent.e. horizontally. · Rule 2. 5 . or diagonally. i. Rule 3. If neither player succeeds.CLASSIFICATION OF GAME TYPE · Category-3 Game:"If solvable at all. Play Alternates. the game is ³Draw´. If the size of the state-space increases. then by Knowledge-based methods". Go-Moku and Renju are considered as divergent games. Winning Criteria: Unbroken line of five stones (marks) whether vertically.

HOW TO PLAY  Players may decide how many cells of the lattice may be used for the game. vertically. 6 . For example:A 10x10 lattice (100 cells) or The entire 15x15 lattice (225 cells).  Each player in turn moves one stone one space to the next empty cell either horizontally. or diagonally.

. India.VARIANT (OTHER ROW GAMES) Row or Mill Games . and Greece Row games Mühle.Linea . o Tic-Tac-Toe(333-game): Three consecutive markers on a restricted 3x3 board. o Standard Go-moku: Only five stones as win. or Morris Games England o Free-style Go-moku: An overline (six consecutive moves) win.Tabula ± Mühle-TTT Game Name Region Games of Alignment.Morris . Germany Mill Games. 7 o Othello 8x8 as variant of Gobang(Go-moku). or Egypt.

COMPUTER AS AN OPPONENT There are 20 situations that computer will win next step HORIZONTALLY VERTICALLY RIGHT DIAGONALLY LEFT DIAGONALLY 8 .

INFINITY). int alpha. 9 . o The idea is that two scores are passed around in the search. o val = AlphaBeta(5.SEARCHING STRATEGY ALPHA-BETA SEARCH o This algorithm is based on Depth-First Search. int beta). -INFINITY. This does a five-ply search as (int depth.

SEARCHING STRATEGY PROOF NUMBER SEARCH DECISION  Best-First search method  Cost function used for decision (which node to expand next) to prove the goal. computer moves and wins. o Plus 50 to value of the empty point which can make computer 2 in a line. o Plus 60 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 2 in a line. Game over. o Plus 70 to value of the empty point which can make computer 3 in a line. If empty point can make x 5 in a line. o Plus 80 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 3 in a line. 10 . then computer moves the step to the point. Else Calculate all the values of empty points: o Plus100 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 4 in a line. o Plus 90 to value of the empty point which can make computer 4 in a line. Else if there was a empty point which can make o 5 in a line.

Strongly solved: such a strategy has been determined for all legal moves. a strategy has been determined to achieve the game-theoretic values against any opposition. Weakly solved: for the initial position.AI GAMES SOLVED NOW AND IN FUTURE Three different definitions of a solution Ultra-weakly solved: the game theoretic value of the initial position has been determined. 11 .

NL] established that the game theoretic value is a first-player win.SUMMARY OF RESULTS o The Category-3 games are solved by a combination of expert knowledge. threat-sequence search.9 15. Calculation performed in parallel on Systems at Vrije University in Amsterdam. threat-space search.as well as alpha-beta search. 12 . proof-number search. VU. Allis [Ref. o Go-moku & Renju have same State-space and Game-tree complexities.1 Systems SUN SPARC Stations SUN SPARC Stations Internal Memory 64 / 128 MB 64 / 128 MB Processor Speed 16 to 28 MIPS 16 to 28 MIPS Standard Go-moku The correctness of DB-Search implementation applied and inferred this game as ³solved one´. Game Free-Style Go-moku Days 11. o For both free-style and standard Go-moku.

including swapping.  Question remains: Is a long-term strategy computable by a machine?  Weakly solve the remaining variants of Connect Five ± different boardsizes. different rules ± including: o free-style and standard Go-moku on smaller boards.  Strongly-solve weakly-solved games.FUTURE RESEARCH Future Research can be splitted into three areas  Leftovers of current investigations.  Selection of fragment. o Go-moku with new Opening Rules. 13 .  4th Computer Renju Tournament (2004) and Solving Problems Competitions.  Discover minimax-win solutions from opening positions. player wants to play in. o Renju with opening rules.

and Checker(8x8) as Solved Games. TWO NEW GAMES o o o o o o  Lines of Action (LOA)  Amazons The Prospects of both are rather different. for which interest only arose recently.NEW PREDICTIONS Computer Olympaid Games in the year 2010 predicted: o Awari. LOA has complexity similar to Othello. 14 . LOA is a game. Assumption of weak solution is possible. Expectation for LOA game not to be solved before 2010. o In Scrabble. Othello. At the fifth Computer Olympaid three strong LOA programs participated. but Best Solution is expected in the year 2010. computers are believed to be closed to perfect play.

Amazons will only be solved on relatively small boards. o The Second Player has an advantage IF m is even. o Since a game starts with 8 Amazons and every move exactly fills one empty square. o Due to variety of possible moves and branching factor. 15 . Conclusion: Many additional games with Mathematical properties recently have come to the attention of Computer Scientists. o For Competitive programs.TWO NEW GAMES o Amazons is a game with a Complexity comparable to that of Go. simple evaluation functions work quite reasonable. the initial position on m x m boards with odd m favours the First Player.