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Implementing Multi-Site Clusters

April 14 20111 Tr n V n Hu Nh t Ngh CPLS

Overview of Multi-Site Clusters

Agenda:
What Are Multi-Site Clusters? What Makes Multi-Site Clusters Unique? Why Use a Multi-Site Cluster? Evaluating the Business Need for a Multi-Site Cluster Storage Challenges for Multi-Site Clusters Synchronous / Asynchronous Replication? Network Challenges for Multi-Site Clusters
Choosing the Appropriate Quorum Mode in Multi-Site Clusters Demo: Deploying a Multi-Site Cluster

What Are Multi-Site Clusters?


A multi-site cluster is a cluster that has been extended so that different nodes in the same cluster reside in separate physical locations

Site A

Site B

SAN

SAN

What Makes Multi-Site Clusters Unique?


Multiple storage arrays, which are independent in each site Nodes commonly access storage local to their own sites Storage is replicated between sites No true shared disk is visible to all nodes

Site A

Site B

Changes are made on Site A and replicated to Site B

Replica

Why Use a Multi-Site Cluster?

Advantages over cold standby server in a disaster recovery site: Automatic failover Reduced downtime
Lower complexity

Reduced administrative overhead

Automatic synchronization of application

and cluster changes


Better service continuity than cold

standby servers Reduced human error factor


Reduced reliance on old, potentially

error-prone procedures

Evaluating the Business Need for a Multi-Site Cluster

Because of increased cost and complexity, multi-site

clusters arent for every company or application


Evaluate the application type and importance, and consider

available alternatives

Plan for the application and hardware architecture, and

for routine failover and failback testing

Storage Challenges for Multi-Site Clusters


Challenge Requires a separate or third-party data replication solution Description
Hardware (block level) storage-based

replication
Software (file system level) host-based

replication
Application-based replication (such as

Exchange 2007 Cluster Continuous Replication) Can be either synchronous or asynchronous replication Synchronous: No acknowledgement of data changes made in Site A until the data is successfully written to Site B
Asynchronous: Data changes made in Site

A will eventually be written to the storage in Site B

What Is Synchronous Replication?


When you use synchronous replication, the host receives a write complete response from the primary storage after the data is written successfully to both storage locations

Site A

Site B

Replication
Write Request Write Complete Data Primary Storage Data

Secondary Storage

Acknowledgement

What Is Asynchronous Replication?


When you use asynchronous replication, the host receives a write complete response from the primary storage after the data is written successfully on the primary storage

Site A

Site B

Replication
Write Request Write Complete Data Primary Storage Data

Secondary Storage

Comparing Synchronous and Asynchronous Replication


Replication Type Description Synchronous
Works across shorter distances Results in no data loss Requires high-bandwidth/low-latency

connections
Allows write latencies to impact

performance Asynchronous Stretches over longer distances


Results in potential data loss on hard

failure
Assumes large enough bandwidth to keep

up with data
Does not significantly impact performance

Network Challenges for Multi-Site Clusters

Inter-node communications are time sensitive; you might

need to configure these thresholds to meet the higher WAN latency


DNS replication might impact client reconnect times when

failover is based on hostname data availability

Active Directory replication latency might effect application

Some applications might require all of the nodes to be in the

same Active Directory site

Choosing the Appropriate Quorum Mode in Multi-Site Clusters

Quorum Mode Node and Disk Majority No Majority: Disk Only Node Majority Node and File Share Majority

Choose when:
Directed by vendor only Directed by vendor only Limited to two sites Three sites are available

Using Node and File Share Majority in a Multi-Site Cluster


File share witness allows a 2-node cluster with no shared disk Single file server can serve as the witness for multiple clusters

Site C

File Share Witness

Site A

Site B

WAN SAN SAN

Third-Party Replication Mechanism

Deploying a Multi-Site Cluster

When deploying multi-site clusters:

   

Ensure that the business requirements are met by the solution Use a hardware vendor to create a full solution for multi-site clusters Choose the correct quorum mode to properly maintain functionality in the event of failures Choose the correct storage replication solution to meet these needs

Demo

Demo: Multi Site Cluster

Demo
PC08: DC, Quorum IP: 192.168.1.8

Site 3

Public network: 192.168.1.0/24 Site 1 PC09: IP: 192.168.1.9 IP: 172.16.1.9 Private network: 172.16.1.0/16 Site 2 PC10: IP: 192.168.1.10 IP: 172.16.1.10

Datakeeper replicate