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Um-e-Laila 2009-CS-43 Fareeha Shahid 2009-CS-03 Neelam Dawood 2009-CS-04
OUTLINE The five stage team development model Situational factors affecting team development Building high performance project teams Manging virtual project teams Project team pitfall .
INTRODUCTION Synergy y y 1 + 1 + 1 = 10 (positive synergy) 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 (negative synergy) Share a sense of common purpose Make effective use of individual talents and expertise Have balanced and shared roles Maintain a problem solving focus Characteristics of High-performing Teams Accept differences of opinion and expression Encourage risk taking and creativity Sets high personal performance standards Identify with the team .
THE 5 STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT .
CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE PROJECT TEAMS Ten or fewer team members Voluntary team membership Continuous service on the team Full-time assignment to the team An organization culture of cooperation and trust Members report only to the project manager All relevant functional areas are represented on the team The project has a compelling objective Members are in speaking distance of each other .
BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE PROJECT TEAMS .
Ambition. Availability 3.RECRUITING TEAM MEMBERS The two important factors affecting recruitment are 1. Management structure being used to complete the project The Some other factors are : 1. Importance of project 2. energy . Credibility 5. problem solving technique 2. Political connections 6. Technological expertise 4.
methods. procedures) Team member interpersonal concerns How is the team going to work together to complete the project is the team going to work together to complete the project . goals.CONDUCTING PROJECT MEETINGS The First Project Team Meeting Three objectives: Provide overview of project (scope. schedule.
CONDUCTING PROJECT MEETINGS Establishing ground rules : o Establish ground rules how the team will work Some of the procedures are : o Planning decisions 1. What tools will be used to support the project? Tracking decisions 1. How will progress be assessed? 2. At what level of detail will the project be assessd . How will the project plan be evolved? 2.
How will changes be instituted? 2. How will the team members communicate among themselves? .CONDUCTING PROJECT MEETINGS o Managing change decisions 1. How will plan changes be documented and evaluated? o Relationship decisions : 1. What department or organisation will the team need to interact with during the project? 2.
symbol. but also be realistic ² PM must believe the vision ² Must be a source of inspiration to others . or statement Vision Vision building meetings building meetings A vision: ² Inspires members to give their best effort ² Unites a diverse group of professionals with individual agendas ² Fosters long-term commitment 4 essential qualities of a vision: ² Must be able to be communicated ² Must challenge.CREATE A SHARED VISION What do we want to create? Can be a slogan.
Can distract from team unity. Reward system should encourage teamwork Link reward to project priorities Cash rewards are nice. but usually go to pay bills How How does an all expense paid 4 day vacation to Disney does an all expense paid 4 day vacation to Disney world for the family sound? (includes time off) Can use negative reinforcement (sunrise meetings) .MANAGING PROJECT REWARD SYSTEMS Project work is a team effort Group Rewards are good. tough to distinguish the dd d i di id l C di t t f t it eserved individuals.
Can be used to signal out extraordinary effort Motivation and recognition ² Letters of commendation (to the supervisor and personnel files) ² Public recognition for outstanding work (perhaps in the status review meeting) ² Desirable job assignments (need to know team member preferences) ² Increased personal flexibility (work at home when child is sick) .MANAGING PROJECT REWARD SYSTEM Not all individual awards are bad.
and evaluate. Control conflict. Use group decision making techniques ² PM is facilitator. GG t lt ti enerate alternatives: BB i t t d d bi id rainstorm. etc.ORCHESTRATING THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS Some problems can be solved though informal ´How·s it going?µ Some Some require collaboration Use group decision making require collaboration. cost. Provide periodic summaries. where it needs to be. not decision maker. 4. extend and combine ideas. Reaching a decision: Set criteria for evaluation (evaluation. Problem identification: Explore where project is now. Follow up: Lessons learned . Anything goes here 3. Do not give choices of solutions 2. Decision is made by consensus ² 4 steps in facilitating group decision making 1.
²Avoid Avoid acting defensivel acting defensivelyy encourage critical debate . administrative procedures. or resources Functional conflict: feelings aside does it improve the conflict: feelings aside. encourage critical debate ² Model appropriate responses within disagreements You don·t need more yes-men (or yes-women) . does it improve the project status? Encouraging Functional Conflict ² Encourage dissent by asking tough questions. question rationale ² Bring in people with different points of view to critical meetings ² Designate someone to be a devil·s advocate. schedule.MANAGING CONFLICT WITHIN THE PROJECT TEAM Most conflicts involve priorities.
use humor) ²Accept the conflict ² Eliminate the conflict . everyone must save face Give a solution that neither party likes and allow the conflicting parties to come up with a better solution ² Control the conflict (smooth over differences.MANAGING CONFLICT WITHIN THE PROJECT TEAM Dysfunctional Conflict: Does it contribute to project performance? Managing Dysfunctional Conflict ² Mediate the conflict (find common ground) ² Arbitrate the conflict PM imposes a solution.
REJUVENATING THE PROJECT TEAM Team drifts off course. rock climbing . loses momentum Informal Techniques ² Institute Institute new rituals new rituals ² Take an off-site break as a team from the project ² View an inspiration message or movie ² Have the project sponsor give a pep talk ² Create a challenge Formal Techniques ² Hold Hold a team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify a team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance ² Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team Whitewater rafting.
and responsiveness Exchange of social information Set clear roles for each team member .MANAGING VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS Geographically dispersed team Internet. email helps Challenges: ² Developing trust (did they do what they said they would do?) Grows though reliability. consistency.
MANAGING VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS ² Developing effective patterns of communication (can·t have a beer together) Include face-to-face if at all possible ² Initial meeting in person with social-building activities Keep team members informed on how the overall project is going ² Central online depository of status information Don·t let team members vanish ² Internet-based scheduling software Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays ² How and when to share information as well as respond ² Distinguish between critical and long-term responses Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts ² Can·t watch body language ² Probe deeper in the virtual world .
PROJECT TEAM PITFALLS Groupthink ² Highly cohesive group members lose their critical evaluative capabilities Pressures of conformity / illusion of invincibility Result: quick decisions with little discussion Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome ² Ability to bypass normal protocols ² Results in further rejection of bureaucratic policies and procedures Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation ² Unhealthy g p p p j y degree of preoccupation with team and project success ² Burnt bridges. corporate policy defiance . burn-out Going Native ² Customer·s interest take precedence over the parent organization·s interests ² Leads to scope creep.
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