AN INTRODUCTION TO BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

CONTENT
      

Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications Typical Bluetooth Scenario Working of Bluetooth System Requirements Profiles Comparison with other technologies Advantages & Disadvantages of Bluetooth

EXAMPLE : THE NETWORKED HOME

WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?

“Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, shortrange radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.”
A recent module

One of the first modules (Ericsson)

ULTIMATE HEADSET

CORDLESS COMPUTER

BLUETOOTH GOALS & VISION
Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology  Short-Range Wireless Solutions  Open Specification  Voice and Data Capability  Worldwide Usability  Other usage models began to develop:
  Personal

Area Network (PAN)  Ad-hoc networks  Data/voice access points  Wireless telematics

OVERVIEW OF BLUETOOTH HISTORY

What is Bluetooth?
 Bluetooth

is a short-range wireless communications technology.

Why this name?
 It

was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.

When does it appear?
 1994

– Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories.  5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998.  First specification released in July 1999.

TIMELINE
        

1994 1995 1997 1998 & 1999 2000 2001 2003 2005

: Ericsson study complete / vision : Engineering work begins : Intel agrees to collaborate : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia Toshiba : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A SIG promoter group Expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola. : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters : First retail products released, Specification 1.1 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)

 Piconet

is the fundamental form of communication for Bluetooth Wireless technology.  Master & Slaves.  The master Bluetooth device can communicate with upto 7 devices.  Data can be transferred b/w the master & one other device.  The master switches rapidly from device to another in a round-robin fashion.

Piconet 1

Piconet 2

S P P S P M S

SB M

S

P

S

M-master S-Slave P-Parked SB-Standby

All devices in a piconet use the same frequencyhopping pattern

Two

or more Piconets can be connected together to form a Scatternet. Some devices act as a bridge by simultaneously playing the master role & the slave role in one piconet. All devices in a piconet use the same frequency-hopping pattern

Application O B E X TCP /IP PPP AT Commands

RFCO MM L2CAP

TSC

SDP

HCI Audio Link Manager (LM) Bas eb an d Bluet ooth Radio

 Bluetooth

specification consists of a series of layers, implemented in h/w & s/w:
Physical layer Baseband Link Manager Protocol(LMP) Host controller Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP). Application Protocol

 The

only versions of MS Windows tat have native support for BT are Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later  Previous versions require the users to install their BT adapter’s own drivers (not directly supported by MS)  Mac OS X has supported BT since version 10.2 released in 2002.  Linux provides 2 BT stacks with BlueZ stack, Supporting all core BT protocols & layers

 Wireless

control of communication b/w a cell phone & a hands-free headset  Wireless n/wing b/w PCs in a confined space  Transfer of files b/w devices with OBEX  For controls where IR was traditionally used  7th generation game consolesNintendo Wii ,Sony PlayStation3

Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B
Drawbacks:
Difficulty

in making it interoperable Had mandatory h/w device add transmission Rendering anonymity impossible at protocol level

Many

errors found in 1.0B were

fixed Added support for non-encrypted channels Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)

Backward

compatible with 1.1 Faster connection and discovery Improved resistance to Radio Frequency interference Higher transmission speeds Improved voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmission of corrupted pages Host Controller Interface support.

 Specified

in November 2004  Backward compatible with version 1.1  Introduction of Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) of 3.0 Mbits/s  3 times faster transmission speed  Lower power conception thru a reduced duty cycle  More available b/w  Further improved performance

Will

be adopted by BT SIG once interoperability testing has completed Extended inquiry response Encryption Pause Resume Secure Simple Pairing NFC(Near Field Communication) Cooperation

FILE TRANSFER PROFILE

• Profile provides:
• Enhanced client-server interactions: - browse, create, transfer folders - browse, pull, push, delete files

HEADSET PROFILE

• Profile provides:
• Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls. • Volume can be controlled from either device. • Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call.

CORE BLUETOOTH PRODUCTS
• • • • • •

Notebook PCs & Desktop computers Printers PDAs Other handheld devices Cell phones Wireless peripherals: • Headsets • Cameras

• CD Player • TV/VCR/DVD • Access Points • Telephone Answering Devices • Cordless Phones • Cars

OTHER PRODUCTS…

2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430

hands free calls

Digital Pulse Oximetry System  Toshiba Washer & Dryer  Nokia N-gage

A COMPARISON

WLAN

BLUETOOTH VS. IRD
•IrD
—Point to point —Intended for Data Communication —Infrared, LOS communication —Can not penetrate solid objects —Both devices must be stationary, for synchronization —Range 1 m

Bluetooth
  

Point to Multipoint Data & Voice Easier Synchronization due to Omnidirectional and no LOS requirement

 

Devices can be mobile Range 10 m

ADVANTAGES

   

 

Cost Effectiveness: This is cost effective since the cost of connectivity and their recurring costs are not involved.  It is very standardized which guarantees a high level of inter operate ability . It operates on bi-directional mode Voice and data coexists in this technology.  Interaction of locally connected so many peripherals are there which is called peer to peer or ad-hoc network.  There is an acknowledgement system guaranteed for data transmission. It has a very strong frequency hopping technology and has a reliable error correcting codes compared to 433MHz, or even Wi-Fi type systems. Energy consumed in this technology is very low.

LIMITATIONS

Short Range operations: This technology is useful in only short range of operations. That means the devices exchanging information have to be carried along if moving with a laptop to somewhere outside the range. Hence it can be said that this system is unable to cope with mobility. Bluetooth standards does not address routing in piconets and scatternets . Multi-hop multicasting is absent in this technology.  Bluetooth is not fully developed and integrated into all the products involved we have to still wait for it to get fully evolved.

THANK YOU

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